Friday, May 17, 2019
U.S. History 1919-1945 Notes
U. S. History nones Red Sc atomic number 18 1919 I. sens hysteria II. wherefore un currentistic irrational fear. A. Expectations up and d bear 1. Prosperity People are image income (1915 income 408$ yr to 1920 835$ year) 2. Post war recession B. Super patriotism/Slackers (youre a slacker if non a crack patriot) 1. Committee for Public Relations (C. P. I. ) (Creel Committee) Read propaganda papers, pushed conformity and plunk fored Boy Scouts for war. 2. Espionage and law littleness acts A. Clear and present danger speech that presents this is non protected. peddle yell fire in a theatre as a joke when there is no fire. Not protected by a handsdment). 3. Radicals A. industrial workers of the World (IWW) nicknamed Wobblies. Loudmouth aggressive workers, and when on strike did it vigorously to prove their point. Opposed WWI.Persecuted, charged with violating lawlessness acts, shut good deal and some impel in jail. C. 1919 Incidents (convinced mess that there are threats e verywhere) 1. Bombs (mail bombs, one goes contribute in A. Mitchell Palmers yard so he constructed the Palmer Raids. People that went on strikes considered radicals). 2. Strikes A. Boston police (19 police got fired for joining AFL so rest of boston police walked take away the job) Coolidge convinced them they could not strike and had to go rear to work, and most did. B. Steel went on strike for racyer wages, and better work conditions. C. Coal went on strike for higher wages. 4. Centralia Massacre 11/11/19 * Wobblies mentation they were departure to be attacked so they opened fire on a parade that was taking place for Armistice Day. Wobblies start a a couple of(prenominal) men, only(prenominal)Wobblies come out except for Wesley Everest who came out of the building firing at police kill one and he was eventu eithery killed. (He was thought to be a crazy radical and a mavin by some) III. Palmer Raids, Dec. 1919, Jan. 1920 Thousands of immigrants are rounded up in c ities from coast to coast, deported back to their home country or charged with a crime for be suspicious. Some 6-7,000 was rounded up in total. None of these deal were charged with a crime when they were picked up, thus making it biggest violation of civil liberties in U. S. IV.End of Scare whitethorn of 1920 the fear of radicals comes to an end. After WWI conformity begins and we lose a lot of cultural diversity. Palmer (attorney general) stimulate ups Anti-Radical Division and appointed Edgar clean to lead it and go after radicals. John L. Lewis Harding died in 1923, buried in home township of Ohio. Had poor judgment of character, simply never accuse of accepting bribes. His judiciary collapsed bc of s preemptdals. Harding got sick in Seattle, that a confine was written most how his wife poisoned him. Harding I. Teapot dome II. Lucid Press A. Gaston way of life, The Death of HardingB. Nam Britton, The Presidents Life She claimed to be The electric chairs whore and fork out intimate encounters in the White hearthstone Calvin Coolidge became president after Harding died. He was a Puritan, sedate one-on-one, and gained nickname Silent Cal for creation very quiet and not talking much. Famous quote of his They cant hang you for what you wear upont say. He was thought to be mean spirited (Laughed at others discomfort and misfortune). His wife was Grace Goodhue (she taught the deaf & shell A blind), very protagonistly and positive influence on Coolidge and contri yeted to his success. Happy as V. P. c he didnt pay off to do much. I. Silent Cal A. Bg B. Gov. > V. P. > President C. Cleans nursing home cleaned out the white house, trying to go away rid of the corrupt stack. Brought in Harlen Stone to bring back pride in W. H.. D. Pro blood and Capitalism He kept the concept of pro business, was an gray form of Capitalism. II. 1924 election A. Democratic disarray Took speed of light ballots to elect representative. John Davis was Democrats choice. Republicans won. B. progressive Party supported Gov. Fallett, received all over 4 mil votes. Disappeared after 1924. C. Republican majorities III. AdministrationA. Andrew Mellon Old populace, tiptop rich, from Pitt, worked in steel business, owned coal, iron and steel mills. Tried to control aluminum market, didnt work, scarcely became even wealthier from this, volunteered service to help Republican Party to gain a positive environment. 1. Budget & ampere accounting Act, 1921 Harding admin. Part of modernization of American govt. 2. Revenue Act, 1921 Coolidge admin. Established Tax drifts, Cut top rate from 75% to 50% ended Excessive Profits tax. Tried to eliminate inheritance tax, didnt work, doesnt switch over lower income tax (realized this was a mistake). . Revenue Act, 1924 Revenue acts created loopholes, made tax avoidance legal, but tax evasion was illegal. Coolidge Admin. Top rates go down again from 50% to 40%. Thought to drip mould do wn and help the poor, and lowered poor income tax. Trickle down Economics came from these Revenue Acts. III. fordney-McCumber tariff restrictive 1922 (tariff is tax on imports) this taxed imports to protect domestic manufacturers. V. Balanced Budget 5. McNary-Haugen Veto, 1927, Over Production estab. Commodity prices so ri imposers could make a profit. Congress passed this and Coolidge baned it. Controversial veto) Farmers started supporting other policy-making leaders. 6. vacuum & Dept. of trade Consumerism Cont. I. Theory & structure Welfare capitalism Trying to get better working conditions. II. Business as Religion Bruce Barton III. Labor Reforms A. Taylorism * Frederick Taylor & two-motor studies B. Cellular Work Force manufacturers organise their workers into groups called cells. Policed themselves, making it easier for great deal at higher position to have less people to watch over C. Pergs Received bonuss and pay raises for good work and got pension pl ans.D. Company Unions Yellow click administered perks that went to union worker, not considered a real union group. * Councils organized work force and dealt with stuff down the stairs management and relayed info. * Sports Teams organized sport venues across America. E. househ gray-headed Consciousness 1. Family structure a. Who works married mans, wives, and kids do when they grow up and are old enough. b. Kids Early childhood they sell goods to make $ for family. c. Gender roles different sexual roles between men and women and cultural naturalism of sex. 2.Middle air division Reformers thought if position social kinfolk familys had less kids they would gain a better notice class status. Settlement houses 1. Hull house ran by Jane Addams, spunk class adult female, supported by philanthropy. Helped uplift working class. 2. Assimilation goods a. partitioning taught English, etiquette, daycare for kids, abuse programs, and clean literary argumentss b. Ethnicity dissimil ar ethnic groups go most their lives differently and enjoy different leisure activities. I. Auto Industry a. Sig 1. twentieth coke 2. Spin offs a. Steel production rises b. Closed cars (glass and leather) c. Rubber production increases d.Gasoline production increases and 4 strokes is in general used for cars. e. Road smoother roads were demanded. By 1920 $1billion dollars a year spent on sensitive roads and $400 million a year on road maintenance. 3. Pro mannersration a. By 1912 car gross revenue are 150,000 yr. b. By 1921 reaches 1 million a year. c. By 1930 23 mil. Sold and 1 in 5 people own a car. B. Henry Ford 1. pretending T prod. In 1908 and puzzle A produced in 1928. Added color to cars in 1928 due to competition. Sued a separate trader bc Ford used the crates that the parts came in to build his model T car and they were randomly changed by the dealer who had no clue he used the wood. . Production efficiently and softwood-produced on assembly line to help cost, wa ges and efficiency better. 3. Cost was 300$ a day and wages were 5$ a day. C. impartiam Crapo Durant, GM financier/investor not a banker A. Buick, 1904 B. 1910 Ads Oldsmobile, Pontiac, and Cadillac. C. Added Chevy (cheapest of these brands) acquires suppliers such as fisher body, Remy electric and DELCO. Cars at this time were self-starters, no keys used, solely crank the engine and go. D. GMAC full general Motors Acceptance Corp. loaned you the property so you could deprave a GMC. E. 1929 & Depression Crapo lost GM and Durant owned it.Crapo had the idea of building a super market, putting every liaison into one big warehouse to make it more(prenominal) convenient, but before his idea came to life he died in 1933. D. Impact of Cars 1. Accidents and Death 30,000-40,000 deaths a year. 2. Pollution invisible pollution from 1920-60s was noble due to lead in the gasoline. Re faild from gas in 1970. 3. Morality peoples morals changed w/the use of more cars. (Lovers lane, so cial events, statutory rape) 4. Autonomy traditional cars gave people more individual and reinforced their autonomy. Cars are so culturally significant and reinforce individualism.IV. Radio Advertising prototypal mass media, by 1927 receiving set sales reached 20million plus a year. A. Psych Ads > behaviorist psychology spirit at people as a mass cabaret, studying people and stimulus, measuring a response scientifically. Stimulus ad is a buying response. B. Radio mass media KDKA, 1920 commercial station calciferol & 1922 500 radio receiver stations across the country. 2 years and radio blanketed America. NBC, 1926 first radio network. Formed by RCA, General Electric and Westing House. By 1926 conglomerates start to squeeze out the independent radio station owners. Amos and Andy, 1928 comedy radio show, black ethnic humor. beginning(a) show that acquired a case-by-case sponsor (Pepsodent tooth past(a)e) C. Planned obsolescence used engineers to create certain prod ucts. technical discipline Shift continually buying unseasoned technology products. Not really a new product, just a way to stimu late(a) the parsimoniousness by making people privation to buy something new. Immigration & second KKK I. Old and new immigration Old immigrants were 19th century ones coming from Britain, Germany, Ire drink down and other Northern Englanders. New immigrants came from southern and eastern Europe (Italians, Russian Jews (Pale), and Slavs and Greeks).II. Nativism & Restrictionist A. Origins 1. late 19th century 2. red scare immigrant radical scare 3. Eugenics fake science, ignorant people claiming a false fact. A. Madison Grant, The passion of the Great Race, 1916 refers to (WASP) White Anglo-Saxxon People who are spill to ruin and change American culture. B. Anti-Semitism rises (anti-Jew) III. KKK A. Rise in Atlanta, 1915 1. Col. Simmons Runs the KKK 2. Birth of a Nation, 1915 First recognizable icon. About American elegant War. KKK dep icted as heroic in a sense. D. W. Griffith created movie reels and hes a filmmaker. 3.Edward Clarke comes up with KKK costumes and KKK words. Hes in it for the bullion and business. B. Peak 1924 peak of the KKK. 4. 5 Mil members and require 7 states (Ok, Cal, Chi, Ind. are a hardly a(prenominal)) 1. Political Clout 2. Rural and Urban C. Fall 1925 1. David Stinson, Indiana friend of Indian govt. Ed Jackson, used KKK to enrich himself, raped depository and she tested to poison herself and died a few weeks later and Stevenson charged w/2nd degree rape and murder. This was tied into KKK. 2. Other Factors IV. Restriction statute A. 1917 Immigration Act starts process of restricting certain immigrants. . Head Tax not free to move to America. 8$ was the head tax. 2. Literacy Test proving you can read and write in a language. Didnt wish mentally incompetent people coming into the country. B. Quota Acts limits foreign-born number of immigrants. 1. 1921 Immigration Act 358,000 accepted (3% of 1910 census) (200,000 were N. W. Englanders). These were the new immigrants from S. E. Europe. 2. 1924 Immigration Act 150,000 accepted (2% of 1890 census and 132,000 could come from N. W. Europe) CRIME AS ENTERTAINMENT I. Leopold and Loeb, 1924 smart wizardry kids, lived in San Fran.A. Perfect Murder Bobby Franks was the 14 yr old kid they killed. Led him to a inactive lot and bludgeoned him to death. Leopold dropped his glasses at the crime scene. Police caught them and Loeb cracked first. Loeb was sexually attracted to Franks so that was his reason to kill him and Leopold was convicted as the accomplice. B. confession 1. Clarence Darrow Attorney of the 2 and he tried to convince the judge that they were mentally diseased. Became cognise as the insanity defense from then on. Both convicted to life in prison. C. Spectacle 1. The Rope etc. A film by Alfred Hitchcock based off the Leopold and Loeb murder. II. Hall-Mills murder, 1922-26 A. Rev. Halls and Mrs. Mills bodies were found in a lovers lane. No clear evidence of who did it. Allegations of Mills brothers killing them and Halls wife had killed them. B. streamlet sole(prenominal) evidence here was the love affair between them 2. 1. Politics 2. Pig Woman Pig farm was about a mile away. Daughters farmer was pig woman bc of her residence and appearance. She didnt see anything just heard noise of a car/gun fire. Mother claims daughter is retarded and no one ever found out who killed them.C. Spectacle 1. Radio Halls and Mills trial was played out over the radio for the 4 year duration of the entire event and everyone was acquitted. III. Lindbergh Kidnapping, 1932 famous pilot who flew around the world. Lindbergh and wife lived out in country. A. Kidnapped, March 1932 Lindbergh son was kidnapped out of 2nd story room and a lean and ransom note were left behind. Lindberg paid a ransom, but his son was never returned. B. struggle 1. Bruno Hauptman German immigrant accused of cr ime. Wood used to make ladder was from Hauptman house. He was found with some of the ransom cash.Found censurable and executed. A year later the babys body was found. C. Spectacle 1. Trail of the Century Charles Lindbergh went into hiding with his wife and they moved out of the country then back to Hawaii in a secluded discipline where he had to fly to get there. MOVIE INDUSTRY I. Tech Shift movies offered motion pictures however it was 2D on a flat screen. Nickelodeons were first movie viewing attractions. Movies weaned people from nickelodeons to movie theaters. A. 3D > 2D 1920s shift from nickelodeons to movie theaters, attracting people bc its liberalr a larger than life, woful picture with music.Started in the 19teens and became a cultural phenom. B. Motion Picture 1. Great Train Robbery, 1903 ended 8 legal proceeding 2. Motion Picture Patent Co. 1918 Located in New Jersey, tried to create a monopoly around NYC in the movie industry 3. Independents they didnt agr ee the Motion Picture Patent Co. so they packed up and headed west. 1st stop was Flagstaff, Arizona. Settled in a town north of L. A. II. Tinsel town Hollywoods nickname. (1912 13,000 movie places, 500 in NY. Attendance by 1922 40 million and 100 million by 1930. 1925 Movie industry was 4th largest. Birth of a Nation recognized as first reel movie, had 12 reels, was hours longsighted, made by D. W. Griffith. ) A. Studios squeezes true independents out Paramount, fox, MGM, Republic, United Artists & Warner Bros. ) Tried to profit from every aspect possible by vertical integration. B. Stars typecast people people gravitated to certain actors. Clara Bow it girl C. Formulas III. scandalizations A. Fatty Arbuckle, 1921 comedian in movies, despicable in real life, a person is killed of a drug overdose at his mansion, he is charged w/2nd degree murder and his movie public life is over. B.Mary Pickford & Douglas Fairbanks she divorces her first husband and married Fairbanks, he r movie career was ruined by her growing old. In 1 movie she played 2 characters at the like time. IV. Censorship A. Dos and Donts, 1924 limited what was shown on the movie screen. B. Hays Commission Will Hays enforced censorship sex and violence (shown euphemistically not realistically). Sex sells so bleakness was pushed as far as possible to draw bigger crowds. Golden Age of Sports I. Recreational A. play of courses tripled in the 20s. Green fees and equipment fees were required to play. . Private-Elites 2. Municipal Middle Class (W. C. Fields) B. Bowling Goes back to the Dutch. 1. besiege Pins 1st form of wheel, usually they were attached to saloons. Not for families at first, men usually went and drank. 2. Gentrification 1920s bowling teams went from 5 to 40,000 and it was more family oriented and people went to have a good time. C. Baseball Clubs 1. Urban/industrial baseball players were factory workers. Sponsored teams, urban and rural would travel to play each ot her. 2. Rural people could just travel around looking for a team to join. II.Spectacle A. Golden Age of Baseball 1. Black Sox, 1919 kale white sox accepted money from gamblers to throw the game and lose in the World Series. * Judge Landis He had power over baseball to enforce rules keeping it fair and just. Juiced ball after Landis stepped to power he supposedly juiced the ball making it easier to hit homers. (he kept Negros separate from white baseball) 2. Babe Ruth 22 Yrs. in the 1920s he was a home run king. B. College root wordball game game 1. The Gate 50,000 people watched first game. 20million was spent on football by 10million fans.Bowl games were invented after the sport kept growing. 1902 Rose Bowl started. 1935 scraping Bowl started taking place at Tulane. Univ. of lolly was a founder of College football and they dropped it bc of the money and how famous football became and not the college itself. 2. Icons Knut Rockne & Gipper C. Boxing 1. Promoter Tex Rick and 1. Dempsey vs. Carpienteir 1921 this fight drew $1Million 2. Dempsey vs. Tuney, 1926 Tuney beat Dempsey by dancing around and not allowing Dempsey allowing to get hit. $1. 8 million in revenue 3.Rematch, 1927 Long view Dempsey didnt retreat to neutral corner and a long count was then abandoned to Tuney to get up, which he did, danced around and didnt allow Dempsey to hit him and he ended up win. III. Sports & Class A. operative Class Baseball B. Elite College Football designed to be a microcosm of leadership positions. You have to be tough. Expectations to be brave and go all out. * Amateur Ideal WASP (ethnocentric) * 1910 NCA is formed to background the deaths and injuries around football, enforced rules and eliminated certain plays and added pads/helmets. * 1896 Amos Stagg forms the Western Conference. Referred to as Ringers (non-college student playing football). Now they are cognise as the Big 10. * NFL formed in 1920s. George Halas was one of the founders. Bec ame an owner, player and coach of the Staley Bears who changed their name to Chicago Bears. These players were working class men and college players. * In 1920s College All America team played NFL all starts, but stopped in late 20s bc NFL was getting to good and it was adults vs. kids eventually. IV. College Football Origins A. Anglo-Saxon Ethnocentrisms 1. Social Darwinism, Gilded Age 1. Herbert Baxter Addams classic trained scholar A. Germ Theory a democratic germ theory the A. S. take with them wherever they go electing their race. Picking your scholars based on merit, i. e. meritocracy. (Basically being born into a family of power) B. Tacitus, Germania history of German tribes, a meritocracy. 2. Saxon Warrior Culture this warrior type leadership establishes college football (choose the best to be display their talent) V. NEW WOMAN 1920s I. Middle & Upper Class A. Club Women married women who formed womens clubs (General Federation of Womens Clubs forms in 1892. There are 500 members and by 1917 there are 1 million women club members.B. Professional 1. Single (Unmarried) 2. Role Model or Feminist? not doing this to represent womankind just doing it for their personal reasons. C. Planned Parenthood Margaret Sanger, middle class woman who tried to prevent unwanted pregnancies. Aimed at working class. This ends up being effective to the single unmarried women who stay childless and want to keep the job they have. II. Working Class Flapper These women was flat chested, wore utterly dress and smoked cigarettes type of bitch. Rough language, went out at night, danced and had fun times. Aspired to marry up into the middle class. A.Peiss Thesis working class women establish the working class phenomenon, trying to straighten out the working class women. Didnt work to well so they picked up some of the working class ways. B. Middle Class 1. Freud Popularized for mental health let your proclivities run free, to much repression results in bad sympto ms 2. Latent Hypocrisy blatantly expressing ideas they dont practice. Behavior as well as rhetoric that pushed culture. SCOPES TRIAL trying to do away with Darwinism theory. Became hold out as the Butler Act. Teaching Darwinism in school was illegal and this passed in 3 states, Tennessee being 1.I. Dayton vs. Chattanooga Wins this trial. Dayton agrees to be put on trial if Dayton members are present at court. II. The Trial A. Judge Raulston wanted to get publicity from this. B. Prosecution 1. Hicks and Bryan C. Defense 1. Darrow & Malone, et al famous lawyers from past cases. Malone is a sophisticate from NY. III. The Argument A. Prosecution Limit limit trial to simple Yes/No questions. B. Defense Expand expand the case based on discourse the truth and including constitutional exceptions. Against 1st amendment for speaking the truth. 1. Greatest Speech C. Decision 1.One Expert Judge allowed 1 expert witness for future appeals D. The tamper House referred to Darrow & amp Malones decision to be the one expert that the judge would allow. 1. Cross-examination IV. Verdict A. Trial John Scopes violated Butler Act and was fined but never had to pay the fine and the verdict was thrown out later down the road. B. Public Opinion he wins in the court of public opinion, but was convicted in the court of Dayton. Aime Semple MacPherson I. Four Square Gospel started a gospel in the suburb away of L. A. church services were new, strange and she conducted herself like a movie star.Became a minor figure in the 1930s and died in the 40s. traditionalist who tried to use modern technologies and it backfired. II. Sensual Debauch III. Scandal Art & Literature, 1920s I. Lost Generation so many ppl were killed and it seemed that generation was lost. Referred to as the high culture A. Why so glum? 1. General Cynicism 2. WWI A. Age of Irrationalism WWI makes no sense. Tactics were irrational, terrorism started and countries were thought to be a bit barbaric. B. All quiet on the western Front, 1929. Eric Remarque everyone dies 3. Sartre Existentialism brand of philosophy.It means we exist and thats all there is to life. Everything (religion, politics, etc. ) is all made up. The only lasting society connecting people is fiction. B. Any Joy? 1. Roaring 20s 2. Behaviorist and psych C. Lit. A. Sinclair Lewis critically acclaimed. Fits into cynical idea. 1. briny Street, 1920 is about a woman who is married well and prosperous, but she is unhappy and runs off to a suburban town. 2. Babbitt, 1922- characterization of midwestern life. Became a midlife crisis story and he desired an affair. He was an unhappy individual. B. HL Mencken refers to middle class as the booshwazee.He falls off the charts and people get ignored of him in 1930s (pro Nazi) he continues to edit supporting young writers, promoting the neighboring gen of writers. 1. Baltimore sunlight D. F. Scott Fitzgerald novels are glum and cynical. He produced great American litera ture. Born in 1896, St. Paul, Minnesota and died in 1940. (Alcoholic). He had many failing businesss. I. Bg. & archaean eld A. St. Paul, 1896 B. Princeton > Army sent to Princeton where he started writing his first hold in this side of paradise. 1917 joined army. Didnt return to Princeton just wrote short stories. II. Zelda Sayre his wife whom he met while training in the army.A. Southern Belle B. offensive Breakdown C. Jazz age couple Scott and Zelda they were drunk most of their lives, living the high life, appearing to be frivolous, she got sick, was placed in a care facility so Scott could keep writing and then he died of liver disease due to alcoholism. III. Career * Great Gatsby, 1925 se recruits his literary career. Its about Gatsby whose a WWI vet who acquires wealth. In the end Gatsby dies without accomplishing his goals and dreams. Told by a narrator on the outside looking in. About old money and new money. Sad generation story that fits into the lost gene ration era. This Side of Paradise, 1920 also about the last generation. * Tender is the Night, 1934 acclaimed and a movie was made out of it. Its about a touching, loving family and the husband has a nervous breakdown that destroys the family. Drawn from Fitzgeralds own personal life. * Short Stories * Hollywood, 1939 went to Hollywood to pass more money. He was a scriptwriter. Dies here in 1940, the last one he worked on was part my lovely. * The Last Tycoon, 1940 published after his death. About Hollywood producers, scandals from the 1920s Hollywood tinsel town era. IV. EvaluationErnest Hemingway Split-Minded I. Bg. 1. oak Park, 1898 close to the prairie, spent all his time in the outdoors and skipped school. He worked for a living all the time, had a salary, didnt just write. 2. Kansas City Star was a stringer for the paper, trained as a diarist from ground up, bc hes an outdoorsman his intellectual curiosity draws him to WWI where he drives an ambulance and participat es in some attacks. II. WWI A. Italian Front B. The displease He was on the front line when a bomb hit his squad and wounded him in the groin area, this wound was thought to have ruined his manhood by others.He convalesces in a Italian hospital and this was the end of his frontline career. Went from here to Toronto Star. III. Paris A. Toronto Star B. Expatriates apart of this group, but also critiques them. C. Serious Writings Men w/o Women, 1920 (cult of masculinity refers to flight from domesticity, relates back to Daniel Boone) Manly men doing manly things in a manly way, women are not needed. In Our Time, 1924 A Farewell to Arms, 1929 The Sun Also Rises, 1926 People struggling to find relationships due to tough times, not trying to write about the lost generation but inevitably was.His phrase was The earth abides. IV. War Correspondent A. Spanish/Civil War 1. For When the Bell Tolls B. WWII V. Noble Prize, 1954 he received this, but felt this was a mind freeze down afterwards bc he thought all his work had to be up to the standard of winning the prize. A. Existentialism & Old Man and the Sea existentialism testament push you toward adventures but you dont have to push it toward tragedy. Old man and the sea is about a Cuban going out on a tiny sailboat and catches a sailfish bigger than his boat.On the way back onto the bound he is attacked by sharks who want to eat the dead sailfish, but fails and when he gets to shore the sharks have eaten largely all the fish, and the Cuban man stumbles back to his shack feeling hes a failure and felt worthless. The town saw the fish bones and thought of the fisherman as a success even though he was asleep when the people were viewing this, not knowing what they had thought. VI. The Code men doing manly things, being a man in a manly way. This is a way men can save up masculinity in a real way by doing manly things. Charles Lindbergh, 1902 1974 I. Bg. biggest hero of the 1920s for everyone at this time. A. Minnesota + Washington DC born in Minn. In 1902. Mother name was Lands and her mom was a dentist. Lindbergh family was very rich. Didnt socialize well and was left out, had few friends, and his andiron was his best friend. Always referred to his dog as his best friend. Moved to D. C. to spend time w/his dad and was around relative and politics. II. Tech & Airplanes A. Univ. of Wisconsin, 1920 attended the univ. and had an apartment w/his mom off campus. He had bad grades so he and his mom took time away and went on a road trip to Cali. B.Flying 1. Excelsion in Nebraska Acquires a excelsior motorcycle and when he got back to Minnesota he traded it for a Jenny Airplane, then flew it to cubic decimetre Field. 2. Lambert Field, St. Louis huge aviation place. 3. Flying Circuses traveled with the circus and did plane acrobatics, made money doing this. (Parachute jumping, airplane walking, and other ways to earn money. ) 4. Army, 1924 enlisted in Army Air core. Army had best airplanes and he joined so he could fly the best and fastest airplanes. Received Ceremonial General and Army didnt want Lindbergh in army bc he didnt fit into the system. . Airmail, 1926 Lindberghs plane crashed 2x and he took the mail with him when he bailed out. Crashed due to flying into bad weather. Got the name lucky lindy bc of this. III. 1927 A. The attainment he planned to fly across the Atlantic from N. Y. to Paris. Tried to buy a mono wing airplane, was unable to so he contacted Ryan Aircraft in San Diego to buy one from them. St. Louis bankers gave him money to buy it as long as their name was on the plane. His planes name was Spirit of St. Louis. He made the trip in about 33 hours, only being about 20 miles off of the destination in Paris.He flew around looking for the field and people heard him and they parked their cars creating a runway with the cars headlights. B. Well, we made it what Lindbergh has said when he come and got out of the plane. said we bc he was talking about his him and his plane that made the trip. C. Why such a hero? Hero bc he made it, survived, worldwide jubilation, became a celebrity, wrote a book called we. Caused Great Depression I. Structuralist II. Monetarist (Rose and Milton Friedman) A. Depression Cycles 1. Runs and stop payments 2. Positive result B. Federal Reserve 1. Benjamin satisfying one of 12 presidents of a fed.Reserve bank. Dominated fed. Reserve systems. Became defacto chairman of the Fed. Reserve banks. Died in 1928. After he died their was squabbling and fighting to become next president overseer. 2. believe of the U. S. C. F. D. R. Failure 1. Moratorium (temporarily stopping business) cause a genius of banking monetarily by shutting them down for a few months. clean proposed this but would not establish it until the next president came to office. F. D. R. declines this and wants to come up with his own idea. 1932-33 no bank moratorium happened and this is when banks failed and 14 ou t of 48 states only had open banks.Great Depression Stats and Conditions I. Business A. US Steal, ex. Operating at 19. 1% capacity. In 1928 made and sold 60 locomotives and in 1933 they only sold 1. B. Stock Market stocks dropped to 11% total loss of $74 billion. Money and wealth disappeared. C. Banks (5,000) D. Bankruptcy 86,000 businesses declared developcy and many others just shrank. E. G. N. P. (Gross Natl Product) 124$ billion in 1928 and 1933 dropped to 41 billion. Economy shrank by over 60%. Started in 29 and continues to summer of 33. II. Families A. Wages 1928 a family of 4 needs $2000 a year to exist.Making less than this youre poor. In 1932 average family wage is $16. 21 a week making it less than $1000 a year. %60 of families below poverty line. intimately 2/3 of the U. S. world is poor. B. Evictions people losing their homes and in 1932 273,000 people are evicted, losing their homes. C. Emigration > immigration more people were leaving the U. S. than peopl e were entering the U. S. D. Unemployment 15-17 Million people unemployed and 34 million were affected. (Industrial type of family) For agricultural families they had a family size of 7-8, and 11 million were affected.With this combined 1/3 of the U. S. population was unemployed. III. Why No Revolution? Hitler comes to power in the 1930s in Europe. No revolution in the U. S. A. delinquency American population pickd themselves, known as the protestant work ethic. (God favors the rich and hard working, you will be successful if you work hard. If you fail its your fault bc the U. S. is land of opportunity. Citizens are inclined to blame themselves during the low gear, mentation its Gods punishment for the behavior that went on in the 1920s. ) Altruistic suicide Neil Dunkein came up with this.The father/husband thinks that his family will be better without him bc he is a failure and drag the family down. B. Radical Heritage C. Business Success A. Alfred Butts created scrabble an d became rich B. Howard Johnson opened up an ice woof shop that became a successful business chain next to movie theatres and became rich C. J. Paul Ghetto in the oil industry, his industry didnt go under like most did. He bought up bankrupt oil companies and became a multi billionaire by converting oil factories to gas ones. IV. FARMS 90% in 1770s to 30% in the 1930s and less than 2% today. People are migrating off farms.Declining farm commodities is driving people away. A. Prices drop wheat is 25 cents, oats 10 cents, hogs and beef 2 ? cents per lb. , corn 7 cents a bushel. Costs a $1. 10 to raise a sheep and sell wool and you can only make 1$ back. Prices are not enough to be sufficient. No profit to be made. Drought comes upon farmers in the 30s and makes it worse. B. Dust Bowl refers to a geographic area out in the Oklahoma & Texas panhandle, parts of Kansas and New Mexico. Oklahoma got the image as being from the dust bowl. Long-term thing that pushed people of their land and went out west looking for jobs. Outsiders called those people Okies.V. The Dole refers to private charity in place when unemployment hits. A. topical anaesthetic Relief $5. 50 a week from charity a week, 286$ a year in Philly. NY is $2. 37 a week, 123$ a year & Mississippi is $1. 50 a week, 178$ a year. You have to be completely broke (no relatives to live with, no home, no job and if you accept this your kids cant go to school bc your not paying taxes since you have no property bc people pay taxes to support schools). B. Stigma VI. Middle Class Impact A. Psych Burden Falls on the women, creating a return to domesticity. Returns to wife and mother stayiat home doing housework. B.Street Smarts finding ways to save money (dine and dash, repairing your shoes on your own quite of buying new ones if falling apart, reusing bed sheets, filling up on as much fodder for as little as possible) VII. Changing US Attitudes A. Business status decreases B. Family Structure 1. Ho lding their own Women holding their own as the domesticity returns. C. Federal Status/Image- only federal action can cure the situation. Acceptance of federal presence in everyones lives (G-men come about, FBI ) D. Changing U. S. Appearance pollution declines, peeing and air is cleaner, traffic is less, petty crimes increase.Movies increase as well as gas production. Okie migration, black farmers are leaving the farms in the south. Herbert Hoover 1874-1964 I. Beginning 19th century traditionalist A. In 1895 he had 40$, invested it and in 1908 had $4million B. Youth he was orphaned off from Iowa he went to Oregon at age 7. C. Stanford B. S. 1895 1. take class treasurer, ran for office 2x and won both. Graduated with a B. S. in Geology. D. Hard rock miner minelaying through granite, igneous rock, rocks that require blasting and you go 1,000s of feet underground. 1. Nevada 1895-97 worked here in the silver boom-mining period.Lost his job when the outpouring was over, so he did nt give u, he went to Alaska unemployed. 2. Alaska Gold Rush 1897 A. Afghan Mine closed in(p) abandoned mine. Hoover investigated and using his geology skills he found that their was more amber to be found. Goes around and raises 500,000$ to onstruct a deep rock mine. He was successful and they dug out $55 million worth of gold and the investors got a 10$ million dollar profit. With this success he became a mining consultant. 3. Consultant he became a mining consultant going around helping mine companies dig in mines and be more successful and sufficient.E. World Travels 1. Boxer Rebellion 1900 Boxers were rebelling the Chinese emperor about the European influence. Hoover was in Peking China with his wife and saved innocent victims from a burning building. 2. WWI too old to fight, but is helping out with distributing American soldiers on the line. Serves on Commission of Relief, distributing relief to soldiers passim the war. Food Admin was set up and it wasnt doing very well s o Hoover was appointed to this administration making it work terming it Hooverizing the administration due to the success with him in charge. F. Sec. f Commerce Harding was elected Hoover became Sec. of Commerce. II. Hoover and depression A. President, 1928-32, 29-33 B. Causes of Depression Stock market crashed in 29, Hoover believed not to do anything thinking it would weed out the inefficient and the country will just ride it out. He believes the problems are away rooting from WWI debts such as war debts and reparation, thinking the European weakness was dragging us down. During the depression he was encouraging everyone, keeping businesses open, not striking or firing employees, but he was comely aware this was doing nothing significant. C. Policy 1.Inaction did nothing to help the economy until he realized the economy wouldnt recover itself. 2. Action By 1929 he enacted a Tax cut on the Ag. Market known as Ag. Marketing Act. This was enactive so the fed came up with $5mil for Ag farmers to purchase excess farm stuff and store them until the commodity price rose and they could sell it back off. This was ineffective in 1929 as well. Smoot Hawley Tariff was created raising tariff from 50 to 100% meant to be a wall protecting the American economy from the weak European economy. He then enacted a 1 year free of paying off loan payments from the European countries to the U.S. this did not work either. III. Bonus Army, 1932 Hoover in 1932 enacted the Recon. Finance Corp. meant to give large corporations 2. 5$ billion in loans in the states to do corporate work hiring workers, making the money trickle down. Doesnt work either. Doesnt work. Home Loan Bank Act in 1932 was created loaning money to banks so people could keep their houses, renegotiating mortgage rates and avoid foreclosure. The breathing space of a few months did not stall the foreclosure rates, just stalled it, bc if people still were unemployed they couldnt pay the banks. Stipulations given to WWI veterans. A.WWI Adjusted (compensation certificates, 1924) B. Walter Hot Waters gave fiery speeches at govt. advocating that payments to veterans be paid now not abide unitl the 1940s. Characterized as leader of the veteran movement. Wanted a march on Washington bc Hoover vetoed this bill allowing vets to be paid early. C. Congress vs. Hoover D. American Legion veteran organization, they opposed early payment do not support bonus march on Washington. They support Hoover and his veto of early payments. E. Bonus March, summer 1932 veterans were mostly homeless, they hopped on trains and hitchhiked and there were in-between 10-20,000 appear in D.C. They flocked to Potomac flats and set up shanty towns/boxes for housing. Requires a structured living quarters. I. Anacostia Flats some of these veterans move into rundown buildings and factories. When the police tried to remove them they threw bricks and stuff to ward off the cops. 1. Hoover image vs. Reality he was considered to be closed and hard nosed. 2. Gen. D. MacArthur Helped assist the Washington police to remove veterans from the buildings w/army warfare and they destroyed the buildings and encampments as well. Looked scary and really bad on the live newsfeed that captured it.Hoover did not order this, MacArthur did this on his own. Hoover criticized MacArthur in private voicing his displeasures. II. Hoover Reviled Reviled bc his image was him ordering the veterans to me killed and removed when in fact this was not true. Hoover blankets (sleeping on benches covered with newspapers), hoovervilles (living quarters made out of cardboard shacks), and hoover hog (whatever commissariat food you could find and make or eat) was named while he was president. Last stint as a huge public icon. A. Pop Culture B. preference C. Rehabilitation, 1950 and 60 FDR & New DealsI. FDR Most governing political figure in American history, elected 4 straight times. He felt it was appropriate and just the fact that he could get elected tells how powerful and influential he was. A. Beginning and youth. He was distant cousin of Theodore Roosevelt. Heritage went back to a wealthy English family that was luxurious and didnt have to work bc the family had millions. Grew up in the rich community, but he was hard working man who went to a private academy and attended Harvard. Worked as Police Commissioner in NY and served as assistant secretary of the navy.B. Polio, 1921 attacks fluid in spinal column and kills nerves, paralyzing hips, knees and legs. If moved to youre diaphragm then you had the aggressive type. Roosevelt had non-aggressive and was paralyzed from the waist down. He caught this when on vacation while on a party boat that housed a dozen or so people. Swimming back to the boat caught his polio after he swam from an island. Without polio he supposedly would not have the same success he would without it. People that voted for him knew he had polio. II. 1932 Election A. Gov. of NY B .New Deal provide people with a do over, that would rescue the country from the depression. C. Brain Trust old progressive idea. Means he relies on expert knowledge. Hiring people in fields that are the smartest, president doesnt know everything of every field. These people were his Brain Trusts listed below. They were the ones advising him on what decisions to make. He would make final decision of their arguments on certain topics. A. Ray Moley the mole pro business, wrote some of early speeches for FDR. B. Louie Howe FDRs oldest friend. Helped him with rehab and stayed by his side.Grounding to reality type of person to keep him intact with reality. C. Jim Farley liaison between White House and Democrats. D. Harry Hopkins Became the face of the New Deal. Head of WPA. E. Rexford Tugwell Head of TPA. Economics professor at Columbia Univ. III. 1st 100 Days, 1st New Deal outpouring of legislation. 14 major pieces of legislation were passed. This means congress passed legislatio n that were not finalized, they were outlined, congress passed them and president Roosevelt oked them. A. First inaugural the only thing we have to fear is fear itself. Pep talk to not get people depressed. B. FDR StyleA. Pragmatist mot tied to any ideology, makes decisions based on certain instances. He calls himself this, not publicly, but he thinks of himself as a political quarterback. Make radical ideas until the economy is back to par, and then he will become conservative. B. concluding Arbiter he had the final say so in the cabinet and if you didnt agree you got out. C. mental capacity? Yes and No. Wasnt always the brightest, he was a second class student, but confident in the ideas and philosophies he did have. 1. Intellect 2. Empathy and charisma people liked him bc he had this, just something that came naturally. D. Use of Media 1.Fireside Chats people listed to his speeches by the fire, communicating directly to people in their living rooms. Big power that he used to his advantage. 2. 16 Friends FDR controlled the press, most of these were paper editors. He used these informal friends to write stories, shave stories for the better and not tell some stories in their papers. 3. Govt. Shorts refers to short films, promoting various govt. programs. The Plow that Broke the Plains and The River. Appeared in the movie theatres that were in-between movie films. IV. Eleanors Role FDRs wife. Allowed herself to be used by her husband for political purposes.If he was unsure about an idea how it would play with the public, he would have his wife propose the issue, looking like she would give them the idea, and the President and cabinet members would wait for the press to respond and see how they took the news to know if it would be a good idea. Helped insulate her husband from political fallout when necessary. V. 1st 100 days & 1st New Deal A. Cabinet 1. Henry Wallace 2. Harold Ickes 3. Frances Perkins 1st female cabinet member, lawyer by training. 4. Harry Hopkins B. Legislation 1. Banking Crisis over 5,000 banks closed and people that had money in them lost it all.A. Bank holiday declared bank holiday over fireside chats closing all banks for 1-2 weeks. Designed to make the public be less panicky. B. Banking Act Gives President authority to close the banks. Takes U. S. off gold standard. wallpaper money no longer tied to amount of gold in federal repository. C. Glass-Steagle Act June of 1933, reform legislation. Separates commercial and investment banking. Establishes FDIC, still in place today. 1. FDIC Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. $5,000 limit at the time. 2. National Industrial convalescey Act 1st solution to recover the industrial industry.Created NRA (National Recovery Administration). A. NRA & Blue Eagle symbols of politics B. Public works PWA NRA oversaw this. $3 Billion went to support PWA projects, paid %40-60, which was promote costs. C. Codes of Fair Competition 1. Title 1, Section 7A 3. Ag ricultural Adjustment Act A. Goals B. Actions encouraged farmers to destroy livestock and crops. 1. Short Term 2. Long term Estab. program of subsidy to farmers to limit them on their crop yield C. Criticism burning of crops and killing livestock b/c people are on the streets starving at the time. If youre going to subsidize farmers farm everyone else.D. Success stops downward spiral of overproduction. 4. civilian Conservation Corps A. Goals Create jobs for youth men Employs some 300,000 men, segregated B. Program employ males in the age range of 18-25 that are married and jobless. 30$ monthly. Doing natural resource work (fighting fires, building buildings, altering up communities, conservation type work). C. Criticism- CCC men are referred to as Military Brown Shirts. This is compared to things going on in Germany. People assert this to Roosevelts private army. D. Success did a 180-degree swing and became very successful based on the pics.Becomes one of the most popul ar ideas out of the New Deal. 5. Tennessee Valley dictum A. Goals B. Accomplished C. Criticism D. Success New Deals I. Evaluations A. Relief Roosevelt credited w/pre circumstances American democratic institutions. B. Recover Considered to be a failure. WWII solved the depression not the reforms. C. Reform put into place regulations, preserving prosperity. Insufficient reforms or to many reforms had be pulled back and repealed? Women and Great Depression I. Family status A. Marriage rates decline. Put on hold b/c of uncertainty of the future. B.Divorce rates decline. Increased in the 1920s, but collapsed in the 30s due to having to separate and having a lack of opportunities outside of marriage. C. Births declining rates. II. Ag Women A. Rates are down Ag families having 5-6 kids per family are fair less. B. Rural Electrification electricity to the farms were beneficial and helped even during the depression. 1935 1-10 Farms have electricity. 1941 4-10 farms have electricity. III. Working women A. 1930 Census 11 million women working constitute 24% of female population and are 22% of all workers at the time. B. 940 Census 13 million women working constitute 25% of the female population and are 25% of all the workers at the time. IV. Gender Roles and Feminism A. Domesticity is up the word feminism changes in its connotation. B. Role Models 1. Feminists Eleanor has an all female staff, gaining training in political world. 2. Traditional serving her husband as first lady. Women in sports represented the new woman in the 1920s. In the 30s you had to be beautiful and have female qualities if you wanted to be an athlete. All women were expected to be attractive. Depression Hollywood I.Stats 60-80 movies a week and 500 a year. 1930s attendance was 10 million. eviscerate for adult and 10 cents for a kid. In between movies you saw cartoon, govt. short or other reels. II. Studios MGM, twentieth Century Fox, Paramount, Warner Bros. and RKO are the only studios that survived. Continue in vertical integration and wanted to control everything, working out deals to make profits and show movies in each others studios. A. Formula organic evolution III. Cynicism in 1934 Hollywood is pushing censorships. IV. Censorship Est. A. Production Code, 1930 sometimes called the 10 commandments for movies of what they can and cant do.Violence is euphemistic, human being relationships are moderated. B. Movies 1931-33 by this time the producers are violating their own codes. Brief depictions of female nudity. Scandalous and boycotting are becoming threatening. Uproar is so great that Hollywood takes action, thinking htat if audience wont come then they in the long run stop with this and hire joseph Breen to view and censor movies from 1934 on. C. Joseph Breen looks at scripts and tears out the parts that cant be portrayed. (You can say pregnant in movies, so you say a woman is expecting.You cant show a woman and man in bed unless one of them has a foot on t he floor even if married. Hetero-social circumstances disappear due to the thought of scaring the audience away and losing money. ) leaping/musicals are the only way a man and woman can be embracing and base in the 1960s. V. Up Beat A. Hollywood 1934 IV. Womens Roles A. Light and Dark means virtuous woman (light woman) and she always gets the guy at the end. The dark woman (licentious woman) who goes after the guy and gets him for a moment eventually comes to a bad head and he goes to get the light woman.