Thursday, September 19, 2019

Human Imperfection Illustrated in Frosts Poem, After Apple Picking Ess

The poem â€Å"After Apple Picking† by Robert Frost expresses the feelings of the narrator during and after the process of harvesting apples by showing the sustainability and ambition of human spirit. Frost’s poem is an accurate reflection of life and of human imperfection through the use of repetition, literal and figurative language and various symbols. The repeated use of the word â€Å"sleep† resonates throughout the poem and suggests that the narrator is experiencing fatigue and weariness, â€Å"I am drowsing off / I cannot rub the strangeness from my sight / Upon my way to sleep before it fell / My instep arch not only keeps the ache / [Woodchuck]’s sleep† (Frost 8-21) One interpretation of sleep is a â€Å"final sleep† due to sleep’s association with winter in this piece. Because winter is most commonly associated to death of life, one may assume that was the author’s intended definition. However, a more logical and literal interpretation is the fact that the speaker is worn out and tired from picking apples, which would relate to and explain some of the other figures of speech in the poem. T...

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Genetic Engineering: Genetic Criticism :: Literature Essays Literary Criticism

Genetic Criticism      Ã‚  Ã‚   Source study is a unique approach to a work of literature because it seems to have little to do with the completed work itself. Source study, or genetic criticism, has as its focus all of those things that influenced, or may have influenced, a literary work. By this branch of criticism, Wilfred Guerin explains, "... we mean the growth and development of a work as seen through a study of the author's manuscripts during the stages of composition of the work, of notebooks, of sources and analogues, and of various other influences (not necessarily sociological or psychological) that lie in the background of the work" (292). A genetic critic hopes to find clues as to the author's intention by noting and examining the choices an author has made during the production of a work. One of the assumptions made by these critics, Guerin adds, is that such research will lead to "a richer, more accurate appreciation of the work" (292). In practice, the light of appreciation , accumulated from such research, shines most brightly on the artist, while the work itself fades into the background.      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Perhaps this focus on the writer is not such a bad thing. Chauncey Sanders writes that the study of a writer's sources leads to a clearer understanding of an artist's originality or lack of the same (165). While it may be useful to spot literary robbery, Sanders believes that genetic criticism has a more important role: "It should not be confined to the discovery of such plagiarisms . . . but rather it should involve the analyzing of a piece of literature with a view to discovering whence came the inspiration, the material, and the technique whereby the work came into being" (162). Again, though, it is the artist who is the main subject of this type of research. "We must learn and study the sources of a Chaucer or a Shakespeare," writes Sanders, "in order to appreciate the nature and extent of his originality" (364-365). Any greater understanding of the work would result only indirectly from this approach to literature, an approach which seems especially susceptible to becoming a mere celebration of the artist.      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   John Holmes' analysis of Robert Frost's composition of "Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening" illustrates how genetic criticism tends to reveal more about the poet than the poem.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Farenheit 451 Reflection

Reflection #1 Cipriano Echavarria Farenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury Pg. 72 â€Å"You can’t build a house without nails and wood. If you don’t want a house built, hide the nails and wood. If you don’t want a man unhappy politically, don’t give him two sides to a question to worry him; give him one. Better yet, give him none. Let him forget there is such a thing as war†. (72) Censorship has stroked the world for many decades; fearful governments have been hiding information or modifying it to its citizens. Why? Why are governments afraid of the knowledge of their people?Knowledge is power, and throughout history we’ve seen how man is always in search for more knowledge, curious on finding explanations to unanswered questions and on analyzing both sides to a question. Knowledge of people has caused many problems to world governments, many revolutions and wars have started due to the fact that citizens have encountered a new form of thinking. Fahrenh eit 451 portrays a futuristic society in which the government has censored everything, from books to newspapers and from T.V shows to Radio shows. This society never experiments conflict or disagreement because everybody is taught the same things and therefore think the same way. This has made me think on which is actually the best way to rule a society. Is it the way most countries in the world implement, an uncensored and free-thinking way, were due to the different opinions and thoughts many conflicts are created which lead to death, torture and cruelty. Or is it the way shown in the book, were everybody is thought to think the same way.I arrived to a conclusion and basing myself on the Human Rights Declaration, people should be free on what information they want to know and on how they want to think, but they must be taught to respect differences, and to be tolerant in order to avoid conflict. Reflection #2 Cipriano Echavarria Farenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury Pg. 181 I really enjoy ed myself and learned a lot while reading this book. I’ve never liked fiction or realistic-fiction books but I’ve got to admit that this book will make me think twice whenever I’ll have to choose between a fiction and a non-fiction book.The author did a really god job on creating a Futuristic place were many things were associated to reality but had different roles. For example, firemen instead of having to extinguish fire had to create fires which burned books. This makes you think about reality and ask yourself questions about how would society be if roles were inverted, if firemen instead of extinguishing fires created them, if policemen instead of providing security against thefts and murders would attack you, if drugs were legal etc.The book not only provided an interesting perspective on how would a society be if everyone thought the same way but it also gave many lectures about love and friendship. It showed how Montag (main character) didn’t love his wife and that even though he pretended and tried to be happy with her and tried to love her wasn’t able to do it. This made me think about the importance of love, and of never trying to trick your feelings on trying to make them love a person who you really don’t, it also made me think (as harsh as it could sound) if I really loved my girlfriend or if she was just a person who physically and mentally attracted me.Finally the author did a great job in writing many quotes that relates to everyday situations, one of the quotes that I most liked and related to was: â€Å"We cannot tell the precise moment when friendship is formed. As in filling a vessel drop by drop, there is at last a drop which makes it run over; so in a series of kindnesses there is at least one which makes the heart run over. † The author used this quote to explain Montags feelings towards a girl named Clarisse, which after a short time being friends Montag started to love.This quote extreme ly relates to a situation I experienced in the past, my best friend and I let our hearts â€Å"run over† and after many years of being friends we fell in love. Fahrenheit has been probably the book from which I’ve most learned about and the one with I could relate the most; it’s my new favorite book. It’s curious how things in life just arrive in the perfect moment. A week ago I was in the UN model of Barranquilla discussing Extrajudicial Executions and censorship done by the government; coincidentally Fahrenheit 451 is based on different types of Extrajudicial Executions and censorship done by the government.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Invention: History of the Internet and Wheel

From the earliest record of civilization stemming twelve thousand years ago in Kyushu, Japan, mankind has strived to make the quality of life easier, better and more convenient with each generation. Great imagination combined with science, research, skill and patience are the tools used to create remarkable inventions that allow people today to take so much for granted in life. From my point of view, the three inventions that are the most important ones to mankind are the wheel, electricity, and the Internet.The most profound invention of all time is the wheel. Not only does it provide many sources of convenience in life, but it is also essential in the success of several other inventions. Without the wheel, discovering new lands would have been impossible, as explorers needed carriages to carry supplies, people, medicines, and other essential items for journeys. Agriculture would not be anywhere near what it is today without the basic wheel. Planes would not be able to take off or l and without the wheel.People would not be able to commute long distances to and from work. Police cars, fire engines, and ambulances would not be able to get to victims with speed without the wheel. In every aspect of life, the wheel is the one invention that people cannot live without. Long gone are the days where the sun determined when a functional day would start or end. It is the invention of electricity that gives people the opportunity to read books printed in mass copies from a machine at any time of the night and gives everyone freedom to come home to a warm meal.Today, it is routine to wake up to the sound of an alarm, and turn on the coffee maker. With each step taken during the day comes the need to use more electricity. From starting a car to get to one’s destination, and listening to the radio, or watching television, and using computers to write essays such as this one, electricity is the driving force that enables man to accomplish these tasks, which makes ele ctricity one of the greatest inventions of all time.With the invention of the Internet and its implementation in society, the world as we know it has changed drastically in the last fifteen years. The idea of direct communication first introduced by the telephone has far been surpassed with online communication tools such as Skype and Facetime. The convenience of ordering everything imaginable, from groceries, to books, to clothes, to vacation packages, and making dinner reservations all with the click of a button, is a convenience that is only possible because of the Internet.Today, the entire world and answers to all questions are easily accessible and so convenient that society has become as dependent on internet, as they are to electricity and the wheel. From the discussion above, we may safely draw the conclusion that the wheel, electricity and the internet are the most important inventions that shape society. For most, living without these is an impossibility. Not only do the serve as the foundation to other inventions, but they will continue to influence inventions to come.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Outline for Adhd

I. What is ADHD? Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder- a common behavior disorder that affects one in 15-20 school-age children. Boys are three times more likely to be diagnosed with it than girls, but there is no clear reason yet why more boys than girls are diagnosed with it. It is broken down into three subtypes: an inattentive type, with signs that include: * inability to pay attention to details or a tendency to make careless errors in schoolwork or other activities * difficulty with sustained attention in tasks or play activities * apparent listening problems * difficulty following instructions * problems with organization avoidance or dislike of tasks that require mental effort * tendency to lose things like toys, notebooks, or homework * distractibility * forgetfulness in daily activities 2. a hyperactive-impulsive type, with signs that include: * fidgeting or squirming * difficulty remaining seated * excessive running or climbing * difficulty playing quietly * always see ming to be â€Å"on the go† * excessive talking * blurting out answers before hearing the full question * difficulty waiting for a turn or in line * problems with interrupting or intruding 3. a combined type, which involves a combination of the other two types and is the most common A. Symptoms: impulsive, hyperactive, short attention span, trouble focusing, symptoms are present over a long period of time and occur in different settings, problems finishing tasks, disorganized, trouble following directions, easily distracted, appear forgetful or careless and frequently misplace things. 1. Explain similarities/differences of ADD and ADHD: Similarities: attention span is short, trouble controlling their behavior without medication and behavioral therapy, appear bored. Differences: ADD- attention deficit without hyperactivity and impulsiveness. ADHD- includes hyperactivity and impulsiveness. . ex of characteristics in boys: hyperactive/impulsive behavior, rough behavior b. ex of characteristics in girls: inattentive, forgetful, hyper-talkative, emotional hyper-reactive c. why it is harder to spot ADD/ADHD in girls than boys: girls are harder to spot because the criteria for spotting ADHD includes external behavioral characteristics such as aggression, defiance, and other behavioral management problems, which are more common in boys than in girls. Girls with ADHD tend to be shy, socially isolate themselves, driven or anxious, or over-focused on their studies B. How is ADHD diagnosed? There is no test that can determine whether a child has ADHD or not, just a complete evaluation. A primary care physician or the family pediatrician usually prescribes medication in the lowest dose form and does medication checks every month to see if the current dose is helping or if an increase is needed. Most of the time if there is no change at the current dose being taken, the physician increases the dose each month until adverse side effects start to be seen in the child, than a decrease in dosage happens until changes for the benefit of the child are noticed by the parent and the teachers. If there is any doubt a referral to a child psychologist or psychiatrist may be needed for further evaluation. To be considered for a diagnosis of ADHD: * a child must display behaviors from one of the three subtypes before age 7 * these behaviors must be more severe than in other kids the same age * the behaviors must last for at least 6 months * the behaviors must occur in and negatively affect at least two areas of a child's life (such as school, home, day-care settings, or friendships). The physician does a complete physical exam to rule out any other medical problems. 1. Adult Observations: Parents are asked to fill out a behavioral evaluation form that contains different behaviors in different settings and the strengths and weaknesses of their child. If there is a day-care provider, teacher, or any other family member or friend who spends time with the child evaluations are sent to them. The physician looks over all the completed evaluation, and then talks it over with an approved child psychologist with the permission of the parent, and then the physician, psychologist, parent and child all come together and talk about possible treatment options. a. Teachers – even HS teachers need to be aware of it nd/or learn how to spot it in high-schoolers and even other ages of children. ADHD can go undiagnosed for years. Some kids outgrow it others struggle with it even into high-school and through adulthood. b. Medical Examination II. What causes ADHD? It has biological origins that aren’t quite understood. There isn’t a single cause but researches are looking at a combination of factors such as genetics, environmental, chemical imbalances in the brain. II. How is ADHD treated? Can’t be cured but can be successfully managed. III. Stimulants are the best-known treatments — they've been used for more than 50 years in the treatment of ADHD. Some require several doses per day, each lasting about 4 hours; some last up to 12 hours. Possible side effects include decreased appetite, stomachache, irritability, and insomnia. There's currently no evidence of long-term side effects. IV. Nonstimulants were approved for treating ADHD in 2003. These appear to have fewer side effects than stimulants and can last up to 24 hours. V. Antidepressants are sometimes a treatment option; however, in 2004 the U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a warning that these drugs may lead to a rare increased risk of suicide in children and teens. If an antidepressant is recommended for your child, be sure to discuss these risks with your doctor. Medications can affect kids differently, and a child may respond well to one but not another. When determining the correct treatment, the doctor might try various medications in various doses, especially if your child is being treated for ADHD along with another disorder. A. Medication 1. Medication can be very beneficial a. All kids should have the option of being treated because it can significantly help their ability to focus/concentrate and reach their full potential B. Types of Medication 1. Stimulants a. benefits b. negative aspects . Non Stim/Herbal Remedies a. benefits b. negative aspects 3. Behavioral Therapy: Behavioral Therapy Research has shown that medications used to help curb impulsive behavior and attention difficulties are more effective when combined with behavioral therapy. Behavioral therapy attempts to change behavior patterns by: * reorganizing a child's home and school environment * giving clear directions and commands * setting up a system of consistent rewards for appropriate behaviors and negative consequences for inappropriate ones Here are examples of behavioral strategies that may help a child with ADHD: * Create a routine. Try to follow the same schedule every day, from wake-up time to bedtime. Post the schedule in a prominent place, so your child can see what's expected throughout the day and when it's time for homework, play, and chores. * Get organized. Put schoolbags, clothing, and toys in the same place every day so your child will be less likely to lose them. * Avoid distractions. Turn off the TV, radio, and computer games, especially when your child is doing homework. * Limit choices. Offer a choice between two things (this outfit, meal, toy, etc. , or that one) so that your child isn't overwhelmed and overstimulated. Change your interactions with your child. Instead of long-winded explanations and cajoling, use clear, brief directions to remind your child of responsibilities. * Use goals and rewards. Use a chart to list goals and track positive behaviors, then reward your child's efforts. Be sure the goals are realistic (think baby steps rather than overnight success). * Discipline effectively. Instead of yelling or spanking, use timeouts or removal of privileges as consequences for inappropriate behavior. Younger kids may simply need to be distracted or ignored until they display better behavior. * Help your child discover a talent. All kids need to experience success to feel good about themselves. Finding out what your child does well — whether it's sports, art, or music — can boost social skills and self-esteem. a. benefits b. negative aspects Alternative Treatments Currently, the only ADHD therapies that have been proven effective in scientific studies are medications and behavioral therapy. But your doctor may recommend additional treatments and interventions depending on your child's symptoms and needs. Some kids with ADHD, for example, may also need special educational interventions such as tutoring, occupational therapy, etc. Every child's needs are different. A number of other alternative therapies are promoted and tried by parents including: megavitamins, body treatments, diet manipulation, allergy treatment, chiropractic treatment, attention training, visual training, and traditional one-on-one â€Å"talking† psychotherapy. However, scientific research has not found them to be effective, and most have not been studied carefully, if at all. Parents should always be wary of any therapy that promises an ADHD â€Å"cure. † If you're interested in trying something new, speak with your doctor first. Parent Training Parenting a child with ADHD often brings special challenges. Kids with ADHD may not respond well to typical parenting practices. Also, because ADHD tends to run in families, parents may also have some problems with organization and consistency themselves and need active coaching to help learn these skills. Experts recommend parent education and support groups to help family members accept the diagnosis and to teach them how to help kids organize their environment, develop problem-solving skills, and cope with frustrations. Training can also teach parents to respond appropriately to a child's most trying behaviors with calm disciplining techniques. Individual or family counseling can also be helpful. ADHD in the Classroom As your child's most important advocate, you should become familiar with your child's medical, legal, and educational rights. Kids with ADHD are eligible for special services or accommodations at school under the Individuals with Disabilities in Education Act (IDEA) and an anti-discrimination law known as Section 504. Keep in touch with teachers and school officials to monitor your child's progress. In addition to using routines and a clear system of rewards, here are some other tips to share with teachers for classroom success: * Reduce seating distractions. Lessening distractions might be as simple as seating your child near the teacher instead of near the window. * Use a homework folder for parent-teacher communications. The teacher can include assignments and progress notes, and you can check to make sure all work is completed on time. * Break down assignments. Keep instructions clear and brief, breaking down larger tasks into smaller, more manageable pieces. * Give positive reinforcement. Always be on the lookout for positive behaviors. Ask the teacher to offer praise when your child stays seated, doesn't call out, or waits his or her turn instead of criticizing when he or she doesn't. Teach good study skills. Underlining, note taking, and reading out loud can help your child stay focused and retain information. * Supervise. Check that your child goes and comes from school with the correct books and materials. Sometimes kids are paired with a buddy to can help them stay on track. * Be sensitive to self-esteem issues. Ask the teacher to provide feedback to your child in private, and avoid asking your child to perform a task in public that might be too difficult. * Involve the school counselor or psychologist. He or she can help design behavioral programs to address specific problems in the classroom. Helping Your Child You're a stronger advocate for your child when you foster good partnerships with everyone involved in your child's treatment — that includes teachers, doctors, therapists, and even other family members. Take advantage of all the support and education that's available, and you'll help your child navigate toward success. Reviewed by: Richard S. Kingsley, MD Date reviewed: September 2008 Originally reviewed by: W. Douglas Tynan, PhD Back

Saturday, September 14, 2019

The Body Shop, Corporate Social Responsibility

The objective of this piece of work is to undertake a critical analysis of the cosmetics company The Body Shop, in terms of its philosophy, business practices and other activities and assess the extent to which the organisation can legitimately be regarded as a socially responsible corporate entity. The concept of corporate social responsibility will necessarily be outlined and discussed to provide a theoretical framework within which the subsequent analysis will itself be located. The study will then explore the organisation’s opposition to animal testing, its support for community trade and commitment to environmental protection. The chosen areas represent three of the five core values that underpin The Body Shop’s mission statement (Appendix 1) the other two being the activation of self-esteem and the defence of human rights, which will not be addressed specifically. It is anticipated that the structure of the study will allow the company’s history, achievements, strengths and limitations in each defined area to be evaluated within a holistic paradigm (Campbell & Kitson, 2008). The values which the company has defined and set for itself will ultimately be used as benchmark criteria against which the organisation will be assessed. Evaluation will therefore be an ongoing and integral part of the analysis, rather than a process that is separate and distinct from it, although the main themes and issues will be drawn together to expose areas of concern and signpost future courses of action. Introduction The Body Shop International PLC is a global cosmetics company launched in 1976 by Anita Roddick and her husband Gordon, which was predicated on ethical principles and the values of environmental sustainability. Generally known as The Body Shop, the company has 2400 stores in 61 countries, two thirds of which are franchised, selling a range of over 1500 products (The Body Shop, 2009a). The company also sells its products through an in home sales programme, The Body Shop at Home, in the United States, Australia and here in the United Kingdom (Carroll & Buchholtz, 2009). One of the first companies to prohibit the use of ingredients tested on animals, The Body Shop also pioneered Community Trade agreements with countries in the developing world. The company is also attributed for shaping ethical consumerism in the way it has produced and retailed its various consumer products. For many years, bolstered by its eco-friendly credentials and ethically focussed marketing strategies, The Body Shop accommodated a decidedly popular position within the public consciousness and for some at least, was seen as the epitome of a socially responsible organisation. In March 2006, The Body Shop was sold to L’Oreal in a  £652. 3 illion takeover deal, netting Anita and Gordon Roddick  £130 million for the firm they had conceived and set up thirty years previously (The Times, 2007). Anita Roddick died in September 2007 of a brain Haemorrhage (BBC News, 2007). Corporate Social Responsibility At its most basic, corporate social responsibility is an umbrella term used to describe the various ways in which organisations strive to ‘integrate social and environmental obligations with their business activities’ (Watson and MacK ay, 2003:625). Put differently, corporate social responsibility is the belief held by increasing numbers of individuals that businesses have responsibilities to society and the community in which they operate, that go beyond their obligations to investors. Although evidence of socially responsible business ventures can be traced back some significant time, the concept of corporate social responsibility in its recognisably modern form is generally regarded as a Twentieth Century phenomenon, finding formal expression in Howard Bowen’s Book ‘Social Responsibilities of the Businessman’ (1953). Bowen defined social responsibilities in the business context as those which are ‘desirable in terms of the objectives and values of our society’ (Bowen, 1953:6). Since then, definitions of corporate social responsibility have become more sophisticated responding to and taking account of changes in the complexity, nature, diversity and size of business organisations operating within an increasingly global context. There are those however who believe that ethical and moral considerations or indeed social responsibility of any kind have no place in business, its operations or processes. Milton Friedman argued that ‘there is one and only one social responsibility of business – to use it resources and engage in activities designed to increase its profits’ (Friedman, 1962:133). He disputed that businesses can have responsibilities, ‘Only people can have responsibilities’ he asserted (Friedman, 1970). Friedman viewed business organisations as amoral, accommodating a position that is neither moral nor immoral. In this sense, as long as business takes place in context of open and free competition, is conducted in the spirit of fairness and within the ule of law, questions of social responsibility remain mute. Other theorists link the growth and ascendancy of corporate social responsibility, to the proliferation of ethical consumerism. From this perspective, it is the demands of consumers for products and services that are produced ethically, do not benefit from human exploitation or have no detrimental effects upon the environment, rather than the philanthropic endeavours or altruistic tendencies of business entities that is of most significance (Burchell and Cook, 2006). Irrespective of its precise definition or the theoretical perspective from which it is evaluated, there is little doubt that since its formalised conception, corporate social responsibility has become a major entity on the management and business landscape as well as the object of widespread academic interest. In this context, it appears that the CSR concept has a bright future because at its core, it addresses and captures the most important concerns of the public regarding business and society relationships (Carroll, 1999). Opposition to Animal Testing From the outset, The Body Shop has maintained and publicly declared that it does not test its cosmetic products on animals, nor does it commission others to do so on its behalf, as it considered the practice to be unethical. Indeed, this sentiment became a central facet of the organisation’s philosophy and one that set it apart from its main industry competitors. It is also a policy that has served to define the organisation in terms of its ethical stance and one that has been reaffirmed in many of the company’s publications (The Body Shop, 2006a). In the 1980’s The Body Shop, supported by many of its customers and a wide spectrum of animal protection groups, campaigned for a change in the law on the testing of animals for cosmetics purposes in the UK, Europe, the Netherlands, Japan and Germany. In 1996, The Body Shop presented the European Union with a petition signed by over four million people, objecting to the use of animals in cosmetic testing, which at the time was the largest of its kind ever constructed. The organisation played a significant part in the UK government’s decision in 1998 to ban animal testing for cosmetic products and ingredients. Additionally, the various campaigning activities of Anita Roddick resulted in the banning of finished product tests in Germany and the Netherlands, whilst in Japan The Body Shop was responsible for organising the first major campaign on this issue. In 1995, The Body Shop arranged for the independent auditing of its Against Animal Testing supplier monitoring systems and for their certification using the ISO 9002 quality assurance standard. The organisation was one of the first to sign up to the Humane Cosmetic Standards scheme (HCS) in 1996. This internationally recognised framework was conceived and implemented to enable consumers to easily identify in the purchasing process, cosmetic and toiletry products that have not been tested on animals. In 2004, The Body Shop Foundation (BSF) awarded  £20,000 to The Centre for Alternatives to Animal Testing at John Hopkins University to support research into alternatives that might eradicate the need for animal testing entirely. In 2005, the Royal Society for the Protection of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) awarded the company first place in the cosmetics category for ‘Achieving Higher Standards of Animal Welfare’ in recognition of its efforts on this issue (RSPCA, 2005). The following year, it was awarded first place in the ‘Best Cruelty-Free Cosmetics category by People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA). Lauren Bowey of PETA said at the time of the presentation that ‘The Body Shop is a driving force in promoting a more humane lifestyle. By renouncing animal tests, The Body Shop has shown beauty doesn’t have to have an ugly side’ (The Body Shop, 2006b). In 2008, the RSPCA once again recognised the achievements of The Body Shop, by presenting it with the Good Business Award and in 2009 the society bestowed its ultimate accolade, A Lifetime Achievement Award upon the company. The Body Shop was presented with a special lifetime achievement award for its longstanding commitment in campaigning for animal welfare, and for the work of Dame Anita Roddick in being instrumental in driving legislative change, which has seen an European Union wide ban on animal testing come into force this year’ (RSPCA, 2009). Despite its seemingly impressive track record, there are those who argue that The Body Shop’s stance against animal testing did not develop from deeply hel d ethical beliefs concerning animal welfare, but was rather a commercially motivated strategy to enhance the company’s profitability. Anita Roddick, apparently held no strong views on the issue, but after the use of a Not Tested on Animals slogan was proposed by the company’s first cosmetic consultant Mark Constantine and was later proven to have improved sales, her commitment to this cause seemed to shift. Indeed, no mention is made of animal testing or lack thereof in any of the company’s early promotional literature, nor could its customers reasonably deduce The Body Shop’s ethical position on the matter from logos or slogans on the packaging of its initial product lines. It was not until 1987, when The Body Shop undertook a promotional campaign with the British Union Against Vivisection (BUAV) to end testing on personal care products, that the company’s alignment and identification with the issue against animal testing for cosmetics products can be said to have taken place (Entine, 1996). The Not Tested on Animals claim that became almost synonymous with The Body Shop brand has also been the target of much criticism by animal welfare campaigners and others who argue that the statement is clearly and demonstrably false. For example, it is not possible for The Body Shop or any other cosmetics producer to guarantee that its products contain materials or ingredients that have never been tested on animals. All cosmetics contain fragrances, colourings, preservatives and other formulations that must comply with international regulation and certification processes. It is the case that compliance with such regulatory mechanisms almost certainly involves the use of animal testing, even if it is acknowledged that such tests were conducted some time ago. Indeed, The Body Shop’s shift from the use of Not Tested on Animals to the adoption of Against Animal Testing logo in 1989 was influenced to a large extent by legal challenges in Germany and in the United States following complaints from cosmetic companies and animal welfare groups. The objections were not solely concerned with The Body Shop’s unjustified and exaggerated claims, but the organisation’s portrayal that its policies and practises vis-a-vis animal testing were somehow more ethically robust and superior to those of other companies. In making the transition from one position to another, The Body Shop redoubled it publicity campaign giving the impression in the public domain at least, that it was strengthening its opposition to animal testing in the production of its cosmetics. Perhaps the most significant attack against the Body Shop by animal rights supporters and indeed those who subscribed to and took seriously the notion of corporate social responsibility, followed the sale of the company by Anita and Gordon Roddick to L'Oreal in March 2006. Despite vowing to give away the ? 30 million that she apparently made from the sale, Anita was accused of ethical hypocrisy and abandoning the principles that she had espoused during the course of her entrepreneurial career and upon which her Body Shop empire had itself been based. At its core was the policy of opposition to animal testing, a position that was not one shared by L'Oreal and for which Roddick herself had criticised the company in the past (Roddick, 1992). Campaigners against animal testing also pointed to L'Oreal’s link with the Swiss multinational firm Nestle that held a twenty six per cent share in the company (Milmo, 2006). Nestle, had attracted condemnation in the past for its alleged role in promoting baby powder in the developing world and had also been voted as the ‘world's least responsible company’ in an internet poll (Berne Declaration, 2005). Support for Community Trade Community Trade is a system that promotes the purchase of gifts, products, natural ingredients and accessories from communities around the world that are socially or economically marginalised and is a concept that The Body Shop has actively supported for more than twenty years. By allowing producers to access markets that would otherwise be unavailable to them and ensuring that remuneration for the materials, ingredients and products that are supplied is fair and ethical, Community Trade has the very real potential to provide stable sources of income for producers in some of the most socially and economically disadvantaged parts of the world. Indeed, Community Trade and other variants of it such as Fair Trade, is a central pillar of corporate social responsibility and as an identifiable scheme or programme, can have demonstrable benefits for those individuals and groups who participate in it. Under the banner of Trade Not Aid, The Body Shop purchased its first Community Trade products in 1987 from Tamill Nadu, a small community in Southern India. In 1991, Kayapo Indians used their skills to harvest the Brazil nut oil which Body Shop used in one of the company’s bestselling hair conditioning products. Similar projects quickly developed in various parts of the world such as New Mexico where the Pueblo Indians were commissioned to supply The Body Shop with Blue Corn, an essential component of its scrub mask product. Since then, the organisation has identified and worked with trade partners in over twenty countries and is now helping over twenty five thousand people throughout the world to earn a fair wage. It is also that case that more than half of The Body Shop’s core product lines contain one or more ingredients acquired through Community Trade (The Body Shop, 2006c) and that in 2009  £7. 4m was spent to support the Community Trade programme itself (Body Shop, 2009b). Over the years, the Community Trade programme has enabled The Body Shop not only to source high quality, sustainable and demonstrably natural ingredients and other products from across the world, it has allowed the organisation to make a real contribution to the lives and future of those with whom it has developed trading links and partnerships. ‘Community Trade is our commitment to trading fairly and responsibly with suppliers. We actively seek out small-scale farmers, traditional craftspeople, rural cooperatives and even tribal villages, all of them highly skilled experts at their work’ (Body Shop, 2009b). Through its Community Trade programme, The Body Shop has also supported initiatives in its supplier’s local communities, with projects that involved the building of wells, schools, community centres and the supply of educational material to enable learning and the acquisition of knowledge. Indeed, The Body Shop’s pioneering efforts in the area of Community Trade is regarded by many as a model within the cosmetics industry and one that the organisation itself hopes that others will strive to emulate (The Body Shop, 2006c). In 1996, a Code of Conduct was constructed by The Body Shop which outlined the ethical standards to which all of its suppliers should adhere. The Code was developed further in 2005 to ensure its alignment with the Ethical Trade Initiative (ETI) Base Code that sought to identify minimum standards for workers within a global context (The Body Shop, 2005). The Body Shop gave operational expression to the Code by setting up monitoring and assessment systems to ensure compliance by all its suppliers. The Body Shop also worked with those groups whose practices or conditions fell below that which was expected as it believed an educational and awareness raising approach was a more responsible and imaginative way to deal with none compliance than more Draconian responses. Indeed, there is evidence that by engaging with this audit process, suppliers have become more valuable as partners, not only for The Body Shop, but for other retailers and in some cases have caused suppliers to implement their own ethical trade agreements with others further down the supply chain. Whilst The Body Shop would appear to have pioneered the notion of Community Trade, at least if one were to accept the accuracy of the organisation’s publicity and promotional material, some anthropologists and activists have criticised the company for exaggerating the scale and nature of its programmes and other claims that have been made regarding its support for indigenous communities throughout the world. In 1994, it was estimated that Community Trade spending accounted for less than 0. 6 per cent of The Body Shop’s gross sales (Bavaria et al. , 1994). This figure is clearly meagre when compared with the finances of the fair trade organisation Traidcraft, which in the same year disclosed that no less than 31 per cent of its turnover came from fair trade sources (Entine, 1995). Such comparisons are used to question why The Body Shop focuses so much public attention on a programme that accounts for such a small proportion of its total business. Terence Turner, an anthropologist at the University of Chicago has argued that The Body Shop’s purchase of Brazil Nut oil from the Kayapo Indians did nothing to prevent the destruction of the their rain forests, as the company claimed in its public pronouncements. According to Turner, the Kayapo derived most of its income from selling logging and mining concessions on their lands, the very the activities that the Body Shop claimed to have protected through its Community Trade programme. Turner also argued that whilst The Body Shop used images of Kayapo Indians extensively in its stores and in other ‘informational broadsheets’, to enhance its depiction as a culturally sensitive company, the villagers have not been fully compensated for the use of their images by the company in this way (Bavaria et al. , 1994). There is evidence also that some of The Body Shop’s Community Trade associations are patronising and have brought mixed economic benefits for producers, whilst creating tensions, divisions and evoking widespread disruption to the existing social order for indigenous communities. It has certainly not helped the Indians come together as one people; on the contrary, it has contributed to internal antagonisms and divisions, not to mention social dislocation and alienation which recently ruptured the community completely’ (Corry, 1993:11). Environmental Protection As one would expect from a company that has aligned itself so fundamentally with ethical principles in its business practices and operations, environmental protection forms a significant part of The Body Shop’s philosophy of sustainable development. Indeed, since its creation, the organisation has supported the use of technologies and materials that cause minimal harm to the environment and its inhabitants and has promoted the use of resources and ingredients in its product lines that are renewable and sustainable. In 1976, when The Body Shop set up its first UK store in Brighton, it was the one of the first cosmetics companies to provide a refill service and actively encourage its customers to return their used containers and packaging for recycling, a practice that continues today (Roddick, 2006). In continuing its tradition of waste reduction The Body Shop has recently introduced plastic bottles made from one hundred per cent recycled material, an initiative that built upon the company’s replacement of all its carrier bags in 2008 with recycled and recyclable paper bags, the environmental benefits of which are apparent (The Body Shop, 2006d). The Body Shop also sources wood products through suppliers who are Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certified and hopes ultimately to become a carbon neutral retailer by 2010 (The Body Shop, 2006d). In seeking to turn the rhetoric of its environmental protection objectives into reality, the Body Shop is constantly exploring new ways to improve business practices that result in the reduction of the company’s carbon footprint. Many of its stores have already benefitted from structural refurbishment projects that have resulted in energy efficiencies and more are planned in the future as part of an ongoing programme. Low energy lighting and heating systems, conversion of company cars to lower emission models and the reduction of air travel by Body Shop staff are all hoped to contribute towards the longer term objective of carbon neutrality. Where it is possible, The Body Shop is also committed to using renewable sources of energy to run its offices, stores and warehouses throughout the world. In the UK for example, sixty five per cent of its stores are linked to renewable energy contracts. Such energy saving and conservation strategies have been underpinned by awareness training for staff members, which it is hoped will lead to further reductions in the company’s use of finite environmental resources (The Body Shop, 2009d). Although regulatory changes are planned in the future (DEFRA, 2006) public companies are not currently compelled by law to report on their environmental record, unlike the publication of financial statements, nor indeed maintain systems though which such data can be accurately captured. It is the case however that The Body Shop voluntarily published three independently verified environmental statements in 1992, 1993 and 1994, each of which met the criteria of the European Union Eco-Audit, which is now the Eco-Management and Audit scheme (EMAS). In 1994, The Body Shop enhanced and developed its environmental reporting strategy, by combining it with evidence based information of its performance and progress in a number of other areas. The outcome was the production of The Body Shop’s Values Report 1997, a document that is often seen as ‘one of the most significant social performance reports ever prepared’ (Carroll & Buchholtz, 2009:798) and for which the company developed its own ethical auditing methodology (The Body Shop, 2008). Since then The Body Shop has produced further Values Reports, the latest of which includes contributions from a stakeholder’s panel and an external advisor Alan Knight. Alan serves on the UK Sustainable Development Commission and is a highly respected voice, whom we felt would challenge and provoke us’ (The Body Shop, 2009:8). Despite the apparently positive stance taken by The Body Shop on matters of environmental protection and its portrayal in the public domain as the very epitome of a progressive company, there are those who have challenged this perception and rather than being a champion of green issues within the cosmetics industry, believe the org anisation is concerned more with the pursuit of profit than it is with saving the planet (Suzuki, 1996). Whilst publicly declaring its commitment to recycling, The Body Shop has in the past printed its catalogues on ReComm Matte paper, a product produced by Georgia Pacific, a company based in Atlanta notorious for its environmental problems and the large scale harvesting of rainforest timber. Sources within The Body Shop at the time said that the firm had switched from the post-consumer waste recycled paper it was then using to the Georgia Pacific product in January of 1993, apparently because it was cheaper and glossier than the material it had replaced (Entine, 1996). The Body Shop has also phased out the use of reusable and more easily recyclable unbreakable glass containers in favour of plastic receptacles made from petrochemicals that are not recyclable in the majority of markets within which The Body Shop operates. Once again, sources within the company suggest that this move was motivated by escalating shipping costs and thus the imperative to save money, although was apparently promoted in the media and within company literature as being environmentally progressive. There is also evidence that some of The Body Shop’s processing operations have resulted in the discharge of non-biodegradable and some toxic chemicals into local sewerage systems. David Brook, former head of The Body Shop’s United States Environmental Department has confirmed a number of incidents that involved the leaking of materials from the company’s facility in New Jersey. This is underpinned by public records held by the Hanover Sewerage Authority that cites three cases of discharge, although Michael Wynne, an official with the organisation suspected that there were probably more (Entine, 1994).

Friday, September 13, 2019

Computing and Programming with MATLAB Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Computing and Programming with MATLAB - Essay Example In these review we shall investigate two scenarios are, one of linear horizontal motion and that of linear vertical acceleration. In traveling through air, the beetle will experience upwards and gravitational force acting downwards. Therefore to estimate the final velocity of the beetle we need to incorporate the drag force due to air resistance and also the gravitational component of the velocity, for the beetle to fall one mile below until it touches the ground. Velocity of the Porsche is easy to determine by empirical and mathematical equations of linear motion. In solving for the freefall velocity of the beetle, we shall make use of the MATLAB high level programming language, which will assist us to compute and display the results. MATLAB programs work hand in hand with various softwares related to programming languages such as JAVA, C++, FORTRAN python, including other windows compatible applications. In these review we shall design for a MATLAB program to calculate the travel t ime and velocity of two vehicles one moving horizontally while the other moving vertically downwards to cover a distance of one mile (1609m) In order to achieve maximum retardation, we shall now cause the beetle to fall flat on the wheels exposing maximum area to air resistance; hence the drag force will be highest consequently reducing the velocity of fall. In order to launch this program starts up, we need to initially enter the time and distance for the Porsche to cover the one-mile stretch .we shall then allow MATLAB to calculate the velocity as a function of the two variables. We shall then calculate the drag force by use of the formulae available for both minimum and maximum conditions that is when the beetle falls nosedive or flat on to the wheels. It is now possible to calculate the mean velocity of free fall using drag force, mass of beetle, and gravitational acceleration given by application of