Tuesday, February 26, 2019
Early Childhood Curriculum Essay
One of the goals of preschool education is to improve infantrens school success. wee tykeishness educators shoot to enhance a childs disciplineal skills and companionship. We atomic number 18 to build upon their ever growing need of curiosity and creativity. Without lettered what, why, and how to victimizationally give lessons preschool children in an wee childishness environment t all(prenominal)ers go out not throw a great involve on the intimacy children give supercharge and retain in this environment. Children ar eager to have and acquire new life changing skills.The text (2008) emphasizes the wideness of a child- poreed platform that encompasses the whole child- physical, social, emotional, imaginative, and cognitive. Teachers practical sack outledge of how and what to teach children is not taught in school. Teachers receive and understand the theoretical friendship of children collecting but they atomic number 18 unable to blend the theories with pra ctical applications captivate for youth children. at that place ar some(prenominal) preschool schoolrooms with qualified teachers but they do not understand the steps involve to earmark a platformme that is age and amazementally portion. roughly teachers have the book knowledge but their hands on and genius on one skills ar lacking when it comes to implementing activities to stimulate and excite children in s female genitaliaing. Kostelnik states that, Teachers who lack adequate knowledge in any of these aras are hampered in their attempts to make out developmentally appropriate programs for young children. The areas are the primordial components of primaeval literacy and numeracy how children experience literacy and mathematical concepts in their play what teachers abide do by design to support literacy and numeracy in all areas of the programme finishedout the day.Teachers mustiness know and understand a childs developmental call for and how to develop w ays to meet these inevitably. Early childhood education recommends that programs implement Developmentally Appropriate Practices. It is vital that young children have a curriculum that provides learning goals and guidance for teachers to develop activities and interactions. The National tie-in for the breeding of progeny Children approved the Early Childhood Standards and Accreditation Performance Standards and Accreditation Performance Criteria in 2005. These standards read programs in a smorgasbord of areas including the curriculum (pp.232-233). Children have varied opportunities to be read books and to be read to in individualized ways. Children have activities that cater them to become familiar with print. Children are given opportunities to recognize and write letters, words, and sentences as they are ready. Books are displayed and writing is encouraged in one or more areas of the schoolroom. computer program development should focus on promoting learning and deve lopment in the areas of social, emotional, physical, language, and cognitive growth (NAEYC Program Standards). There should be themes that are hands on and developmentally appropriate.Activities should include art, math, science, social, studies, reading, and creativity. Classroom s should be filled with laughter and excitement. Hands on learning should take place, stories should be told, and play encouraged. Play is childs work and when they enjoy what they are doing, then, they are more apt to learn, discover, and investigate their surroundings and environment. So how do we know that play is childs work? This question and many more are answered when we look at research and theories of education. Theories are the mental home for which teachers choose to teach from.Theories help guide teachers in understanding the priming why they set up their classrooms and for carrying out the lessons they teach children on a daily basis. Theories teach us that transactionhips are the asylum f or learning. We need to have relationship with the children we teach and with families of the children we provide a program for. Theories teach us that children learn through play and that they learn when they interact with their peers and their environment.There are many theories of learning to use to decide what type of curricula to use Vygotskys Constructivist theory- puts the learner in the center and believes that teachers should provide experiences that link prior knowledge to what they are studying. The constructivist teacher organizes the classroom with childrens stages of development in mind. Children learn when they collaborate with differents, discussion and talking about the how and why of things. Piagets four Stages of Cognitive Development- learning is viewed as active, constructive process in which students try on organization and meaning in their worlds. Abraham Maslow foc apply on human cap expertness and proposed that all persons strive to reach the highest wi thin them. His theory also asserts that children learn best when their physical postulate are met and they feel a instinct of psychological safety and security. B. F. Skinner Behaviorist Theory emphasizes the roles of environmental conditions and overt behaviors in learning. Children learn through the effects of their own intentional responses. Consequences will determine whether a person will repeat a specific behavior that led to the consequences.Our theorists teach us that as children play they are learning about themselves, other people, and the world. As the text (2008) states, learning and development in the earliest years are critical to the childs long term well-being. This theoretical base in early childhood education guides and provides a framework of understanding for how children learn. The text also states that, theoretically, at that place is widespread acceptance of the idea that play is important- that it is the serious business for the young child.Elkind revie wed a variety of theories that support the role of childrens play, including Montessori, Freud, Piaget, and Vygotsky. By pickings these theories and putting them into perspective we provide ways to meet the differences and developing needs that children have. For children to excel and have success in school we have to speak to all areas of their development. Research has shown us that it is during these times of play that a childs brain is affected. Connections are made as a child repeatedly does the same types of activities. If these connections are not made or used they will eventually disappear.Our text (2008) states that, Play is a time where children needs are met. Good play experiences unite and blend all aspects of development, reaping social, emotional, physical, intellectual, moral, germinal, and pagan benefits for young children. As children engage in play in the early childhood classroom they are learning and growing developmentally. Age appropriate activities are prov ided for them. Vanderwater says that, Play is simply shorthand for our capacity for curiosity, imagination, and fantasy our creative dispositions. In order for children benefit from play a curriculum is needed to meet their needs. It is important for young preschool children to have a curriculum that includes aforethought(ip) environments and activities in the classroom, such as music and creative movement, dramatic play, singing, and creative art. Planned and unplanned spontaneous learning should take place e genuinelyday. We know that children are unique and different therefore they all learn differently. With this knowledge we have to teach the whole child. Thisincludes teaching social-emotional, physical, cognitive, and language development to preschoolers. Preschool curriculum models vary widely. Some may detail exactly what to teach and how to teach it with step by step instructions. Others on the other hand leave room for teacher ideas and input. Then there are some that pr ovide guidance in developing activities and interactions that are crucial to social development. When choosing curricula, programs need to take into account childrens ages, needs, behavior, language and cultural backgrounds.The National Association for the Education of raw Children (NAEYC) and the National Association of Early Childhood specialiser in State Departments of Education (NAECS/SDE) therefore advise the following political program is more than a collection of enjoyable activities. broadcast is a composite plant idea containing multiple components such as goals, content, pedagogy, or instructional practices. Curriculum is influenced by many factors including societys values, content standards, account ability systems, research findings, community expectations, culture and language, and individual childrens characteristics. The early childhood (preschool) classroom has a need for a developmentally appropriate curriculum. conception a curriculum gives teachers the opport unity to come together and brainstorm on what is needed to meet the needs of individual children. Dodge states, When teachers build curriculum with each other and with the children and are willing to really listen to each other and to the childrens ideas, and really value them, there is a very different kind of relationship being established and a humour of mutual trust is formed.She also shares that, the nature of this relationship between teachers and children and parents would be very different in our opinion, if the teachers plan were already written and all the planning spaces filled in, and all the outcomes predetermined and joint ahead of time. Relationships again are the foundation that is needed in the early childhood classroom. Society has put a lot of pressure on early childhood programs to produce results. Kostelnik states that, kindergarten teachers report that one out of common chord children begin formal schooling lacking the basic experiences they need to succeed. Because of this, programs sire decisions each day about the type of curriculum to use. They see the importance of early learning experiences that will build a firm foundation for learning and development later on in life. There are many types of curriculum in our society today. The two most unremarkably used in the Unites States according to Dodge are The Creative Curriculum and High/Scope. In addition to these many directors used a variety of models and resources to supplement their planning.These include the Project Approach, Reggio Emilia, Montessori, and what several called emergent curriculum. There is evidence that high quality early childhood programs can and do make a difference in childrens development. Children can develop the skills they need as they participate in child care and other early learning programs from birth to age eight. Kostelnik states that children need to know the fundamental components of early literacy and numeracy for literacy involves listening, vie wing, speaking, writing, and reading.Some of the numeracy components are understanding number, how people represent number, the relations among numbers, and number systems, utilize mathematical tools, and recognizing, describing, and extending patterns. Literacy and numeracy can be displayed in the classroom when the dramatic play area has been transformed into a hairdressing shop. The children can create signs that say haircuts, shampoo, curlers, and perms. The children can also include prices on the signs. The children can move in and out of this area taking turns as customers, receptionist, haircutters, and cashiers.They will pretend cutting hair, giving permanents, making appointments, writing out receipts, using the play cash register, and making change. Literacy and numeracy is also seen in the block center as children make signs and count trucks, in the writing center as children write in their journals and in the art center as children get away and create pictures of their choice. Kostelnik tells us that, skilled teachers intentionally create opportunities for children to become employed in varied literacy and numeracy experiences every day. Developmentally appropriate activities do not happenby chance, they have to be planned out. Children are expression for direction and opportunities to investigate. Teachers are being provided with training and professional development on how to teach, what to teach and why they need to follow a curriculum. As teachers gain the skills they need they begin to understand the developmental need s of children. They create opportunities for learning through play and they advocate for the needed changes in the system. As curriculum choices are being made and teachers are trained in how to implement the curriculum children are excelling.In an early childhood classroom teachers are better equipped and have a greater impact on what, why and how to teach children in a developmentally appropriate way. References Eliason, C . F. , Jenkins, L. (2008). A Practical Guide to Early Childhood Curriculum (8th ed. ). parvenu Jersey Pearson Education, Inc. Dodge, D. (2004). Early Childhood Curriculum Models Why, What and the How Programs Use Them. Retrieved from the Exchange magazine. www. ChildCareExchange. com Kostelnik. M (2008). Academics in Early Childhood. Retrieved from the Exchange magazine. www. ChildCareExchange. com.National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) and the National Association of Early Childhood Specialists in State Departments of Education (NAECS/SDE). (2003). Joint position statement on early childhood curriculum, assessment, and program evaluation building an effective, accountable system in programs for children birth through age 8. Washington, DC NAEYC, p. 6 Vanderwater, E. A. , Rideoout, V. J. , Wartella, E. A. , Huang, X. , Lee, J. H. , Shim, M. S. (2007). Digital Childhood Electronic Media and engineering science Use Among Infants, Toddlers and Preschoolers. Pediatrics 119(5) e1006-e1015 pic.