Sunday, February 24, 2019
History of Physical Education
legal brief History of somatogenic procreation A brief invoice of sensible didactics in the United States would kick off in the 19th century. there was growing popularity of constellational natural training political plat induces e actu in every(prenominal)y crosswise Europe where calisthenics and gymnastics were all the r grow. American nurtures looked to honor the European model by incorporating sensible study into the curriculum for unproblematic and alternate schoolings. And a brief score of visible fosterage would non be complete with a consideration of institutes of higher raising that bit by bit reinforced up extremely successful sports programs.How it began The brief history of somatic pedagogy would start in just about 1820 when schools focused on gymnastics, hygiene training and c are and exploitation of the mankind eubstance. By the twelvemonth 1950, all over 400 institutes had introduced majors in tangible reproduction. The Young mens roo m Christian Association launched its rattling runner chapter in 1851 and focused on somatogenic activities. Colleges were encouraged to focus on intramural sports particularly track, content and football.But somatogenic tuition became a formal require workforcet following the genteel struggle when m whatever put ins opted to pass laws that required schools to incorporate a meaning(a) tangible development comp integritynt into their curriculums. But it was non till 1970 that an amendment was make to the federal official nurture Act that allowed women from high school and college to compete in athletic competitions. Sex-based discrimination was completely outlawed from government funded programs at this point. THE floor OF corporeal statement AND ADAPTED PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN GREECEIn Greece the in style(p) geezerhood redundant education has followed the same progression as in whatever new(prenominal) country in Europe simply in a very slow pace. Specifically, S pecial Education services were addressable to classic children since the lead astrayning of the 20th century, adapted bodily Education was introduced the suffer devil decades. After the rootage half of the century various associations highly- genuine animated military action with the aim to protect specific chemical groups of throng with e supererogatory(a) of necessity such as, the subterfuge, the in diametrical(p) and motionaly disabled.The possible action had cl archaeozoic kind-hearted characteristics with disgrace as the main feeling. The state welfare was non-existent every kind of billing and legal community was accorded to the authorization of the charitable organic law that with full power decided during the passage of the years about the life and the future of thousands of popu latterly with particular needs. The offers of the individuals had the form of institutional care (enclosed trade protection) with the offer of basic knowledge.The interest of c loak-and-dagger initiative led to the base of various institutional units and schools firstly in the domain of Attica and then in other cities of Greece. Some of the first institutions, which were created, was the field of operations of the unsighted in 1906, the house of the indifferent(p) and dump in 1923, and the Hellenic organization for the protection and rehabilitation of disabled children. In 1937 much late on that point were much branches created such as the national institution for the protection of the deaf and dump in 1937, the lighthouse of the slur in 1946, the school of the blind in North Greece in 1948 etc.These institutions housed a great pattern of children and the role of the individuals was not altogether always a charitable single. However, the under pee-pee sector helped in its way the state preparation so as to take up subsequently the responsibility and interfere institutionally. The first state interferences began in 50s and concerned mainl y edict arrangements for the blind and after for the motionaly disabled. The state however was interested in the group of the mentally retarded children and later in the motionaly disabled, which the snobbish agents had completely ignored.The first school, which was founded by the state for the mentally retarded children, was the original exceptional school of capital of Greece in 1937. galore(postnominal) multitude considerthe state interference in the quadriceps of special education during the 30s non-occasional. The considerable evolutions of pedagogical and psychological science sciences, the establishment of obligatory attendance for all the children and the great outlet of mentally retarded children comparatively with other groups of inferior individuals was a man which the Hellenic state could not ignore.From the middle of 50s the 70s the ontogenesiss in special education came again from the wide bodily function of the private sector while the state followed with mainly legislation inferences and the puff up(p) know sympathy towards the people with special needs. So, during this end educational units were founded and deaf and thudding schools in various areas of Greece and units for motionaly-disabled people. Another offer of the private sector was the establishment of childrens neuropsychiatry clinics and schools for the group of marginal adults and mentally retarded children.The illustration of the classic state and the educational policy of the western countries begins in the mid of the 70s approximately. Specifically towards the end of the 70s measures were promoted for the paid rehabilitation of the disabled by giving motives to employers for the employment of these people. Since 1980 and then special classes for the children with, education difficulties and slight mental retardment began to be estamplished.The Greek state in the 80s seems to desire to participate actively with the other friendly factors in an attempt of reo rganization of the philosophy and pre-existent structure concerning the people with special needs, which imposed their life and genial back round. Precisely, emphasis was disposed in the whole development and the development of the potential of the people with special needs, their introduction in the productive procedure and their mutual acceptance in the sociable group.Today, thousands of individuals with disabilities are introduced to sports in various settings such as schools or in sports clubs in both segregated and integrated settings by a material body of national and international organizations. The momentum for such change is contributed to some(prenominal) reasons unity of the most beta reason is the introduction and approval of a cutting law, which mandates not lone(prenominal) free public education for all children, but most of the essence(predicate) integration of children with disabilities in schools settings.This law is consideredas a point of departure for t he recognition for all childrens rights to participate in corporeal education activities. A second reason, is radical of 90s the carrying out of the program Sports for All, which is organized by the General Secretariat of Sports and employ with the restrain of polar municipalities within Greece. A third reason, is the mandatory mental picture of all students of fleshly education in adapted somatogenetic activity mannikin work during their core university studies.In this way they have the opportunity not only to be introduced, but also to become specialized later on this subject. This has considerably affected their attitude to teach integrated sports. A quaternary reason is the organization of the Paralympic Games of 2004, which is considered one of the largest events in the world. Due to the magnitude of this event, Greece started to survey the current status of the movement for sports for the disabled people, as nearly as, begin to take important actions towards t he best organization of the jeopardizes.History of personal EducationPREFACE To provide a meaningful background of corporal education and sport in modern society it is helpful to have a clear understanding of its role in the past and how it emerged. The purpose of this concession is to outline the history of physical education since cartridge holder immemorial. The text begins with the graduation exercise of the humankind engaging in physical activities, showing the history of physical education and sport being a well-situated tapestry of people, places, events and social forces from early nicety to the present time through transitional periods. INTRODUCTIONThe ground of education as a whole is going through unusual challenges to serve the needs of the individual and the society, and this trend is reflected in physical education also. The history of physical education goes back to the earliest times, if we think of it in the simple terms of suitness and has existed since h uman society in one form or other. Since early history, even before the dawn of civilization and purification, physical exercise has been a very important aspect of human existence and it was not so long ago that it was called physical culture or physical training.THE PALEOLITHIC PERIOD ill-bred mankind began life in the perdition Age. What can they be called? Paleolithic people, Stone agers, primitive humans or cave men. They were hunters and gatherers. They hunted wild game and fished they gathered veggies, berries and nuts. Primitive humans depended entirely on nature for feed. Primitive men moved according to their satisfaction, needs and necessity. They needed to be fit to be able to go through their journey to hunt for provender and water. be nomads and hunters, they were people who had to be persistently chase and gathering food for survival.Their trips regularly lasted for one-to- 2 days for food or water and were meant for regular physical activity to be drawd. Wh en they successfully hunted, they would travel many miles and miles to celebrate with family and friends. sensual activities were not organized by them. The necessity for survival which is the protection against belligerent environment and wild beasts, and roughlytimes the engagement in murder to enshroud their protection, motivated these men to keep themselves physically ? t and unattackable generous compared to stronger forces of nature. In those days there were no machines to help people in their work.That is why they had to depend exclusively upon their physical powers and physical skill. They considered their body to be their prize possession, so their primary concern was to maintain and protect their body. The align of the day was the survival of the most fit. Their sociable nature was inborn and force only by mating and propagation that gave them the desire to dance and play, which were not being organized. Men lived in such a state for thousands of years. in that re spect was neither any organization nor system. Most of their acts were learnt by the young generations by the competence of imitation rather than instruction.This lifestyle created many physical activities and a high level fittingness which defined human life. THE NEOLITHIC renewal Neolithic people lived during the New Stone Age, from 9000 to 8000 B. C. This was the transitional period in which pre- historic societies began to control their surroundings and form civilization. The two most significant developments were the domestication of animals and farming. Their society was different from Paleolithic culture because they lived in established communities, domesticated animals and cultivated crops.As they meliorate their society they veritable skills standardised spinning, weaving and building. They also made tombs and apparitional items. Men and women gave up catch gathering as the only sources of life sentence and learnt to larn their own food. market-gardening and the raise of cattle were discovered and increased to a productive economy. Many villages were built world(a)ly located next to rivers. Then came the creation of the plow, so the difficult tasks being done by the animals and other agricultural development brought the beginning of a less active lifestyle.Social organization became more hard in the first villages, and then towns. Different kind of chiefs appeared and gave rise to a political system. There was class system whereby society was divided into rich and poor. A specialization of work took place. Apart from peasants and cattle farmers, new efficient activities such as craftsmanship (fabric, pottery) were born. This era in history symbolizes the beginning of a more sedentary lifestyle, as man began to lessen some hardships of life while simultaneously decreasing daily physical activity.ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS (2500-250 B. C. ) (i) chinaware In China, the participation of regular physical activity was encouraged by the philosophic al teachings. There were no such words in the Chinese vocabulary entirely corresponding to the Western terms of sport and physical education. Such physical exercises as grappling, swordplay, archery, charioteering and horse-racing were all bodied in the military training and therefore came under the general term of wuyi, or martial arts. Kung Fu gymnastics was developed to keep the body in easily and working condition.It consisted of various stances and movements, patterned by separate foot kit and boodle and imitations of different kind of animals fighting styles. (ii) India India has a long recorded history of civilization but physical activity was not encouraged because of the religious teachings over there. The teachings of Buddha restricted most of the sports and games practiced by other early civilizations. However, an exercise programs known as yoga, same as the Chinese Cong Fu gymnastics, was developed and some other physical activities as well. According to the Hindu p riests, Yoga signifies the development of body, mind, and spirit.The Ancient Indian philosophers recognized the health benefits of Yoga, which consisted of the proper functioning of variety meat and the whole well-being. There have been many physical activities but were neer treated as a part of general education, they were mostly an launch to military career. ANCIENT GREECE THE HEART OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION & SPORT (2500-200 B. C. ) The western civilization began with the Greeks. They were the first one to provide a methodical and philosophical attitude toward education, physical education and sport. It is believed that no other civilization has held fitness in such appreciation as the quaint Greece had.The admiration for viewer of the body and importance of health and fitness end-to-end society is one that is beyond compare in history. For the Greeks, the development of the body was equivalently as important as development of the mind. They believed that the physical well-bein g was crucial for the mental well being. During that period, the Greek states were frequently at war with each other. The Fighting abilities were very much associated with physical fitness levels, therefore making it very important for the people to maintain high level of fitness.Athens and Sparta were the two most famed city-states and dominant force of the Greek civilization. Sparta was already militaristic by 700 B. C. Spartans were gibelike of intellectualism. They were generally suspicious and conventional. All that mattered to the Spartans was being a warrior. Athens was the more democratic of the two city-states. Both city-states served the people and their needs although they were very different. Being a potential warrior was all that mattered to the Spartans. Athens was the more democratic of the two city-states. SPARTAThe Spartan system was much more autocratic. Male children were taken at the age of seven to learn the basic military skills while living in barracks. Litt le emphasis was placed on the arts, sciences, philosophy and literature. Physical activities such as gymnastics, running, jumping, boxing, wrestling and pankration (a brutal combination ofboxing and wrestling) were provided to produce powerful warriors. When the children reached the age of quaternaryteen, they were taught group fighting tactics which would allow them to practise while in the military from the ages of twenty to thirty.Girls did not live in public militarybarracks like the boys, but they participated in discuss, gymnastics, horse riding,javelin, swimming, running, and wrestling at separate training grounds. The objective for womens physical education was to enable them to produce healthy and strong potential warriors. At the age of thirty, the men could then marry women who were fit and healthy so that they could make strong babies, therefore future warriors. ATHENS For the Athenian -The motto for education was a sound mind in a sound body (mens sana in corpore sano ) Athens was quite different compared to the Sparta.The Athenian culture was a very much more freethinking and democratic society oddly noted for its art, literature, philosophy as well as its political system. There were citizens, foreign settlers and slaves but only the citizens were provided with educational opportunities. When compared to Sparta, education was very different in Athens. Women had no physical education compared to Sparta. They put much more emphasis toward intellectual quest. Their objective was correspondent to Sparta that is preparing male warriors.Athenian education was a balance betwixt music (including poetry) and gymnastics which enveloped a range of physical activities. Physical education was provided to the students with a series of graded activities at the Palestra, which consisted of an indoor(a) facility for gymnastics, and to an outdoor space for boxing, discus, javelin, running, jumping, pankration, pentathlon and wrestling. Many of these athletic events were part of the four great sport and religious festivals which consisted of the Olympic, Isthmian, Pythian and Nemean Games.These games started as simple athletic contests dedicated to Greek gods, but the Olympic Games, in particular, over 1000 years, became increasingly complex encompassing events for boys and men in running over different distances, pentathlon, wrestling, races in armour, chariot races, and pankration. As of education more b lanely, the clear objectives of physical education in Athens were to educate the mind and the body and to produce a well integrated person. ROMANS The political ambition of Rome incorporated physical education into a national program for the preparation of military.Therefore, similar to the Greeks, sports, games and physical recreation were meant to prepare boys and young men for military service. Physical education for the Romans was about athletics, which was entertainment above all. All Roman citizens between the ages of 17 and 60 had to be fit for the military service, so it was very important for all the citizens to maintain good physical condition and be prepared. Military training consisted of activities such as running, marching, jumping, and discus and javelin throwing. The fitness levels of the general Roman population declined as individuals became attracted to wealth and entertainment.People were forced to fight to the death, and a great deal fed to lions. Women were not as marginalized in Rome as they were in Greek city-states. Some sporting events were organized for young women such as swimming, dancing, and light exercise was common, especially among the privileged classes. THE DARK (476-1000) AND MIDDLE AGES (900-1400) The warmness Ages saw the fall of the Roman Empire which was conquered by Barbarians from Northern Europe, whereby the ware lifestyles of the Romans had resulted in the complete decay of the societys fitness level.There was the rise of Christianity, and the Christians influence brought about a denial of physical activity for anything other than manual labor. They viewed physical play as immoral, so they halted the Olympic Games in 394. The barbarians from Northern Europe were similar to the primitive humans. Their way of life consisted of hunting and gathering food, so physical activity and fitness were fundamentals for survival. Thus, despite the downfall of the Roman Empire, fitness experienced a revival during the nighttime and Middle ages because survival during these challenging times required it. THE RENAISSANCE (1400-1600)During the Renaissance, a renewed appreciation for human life evolved creating an environment which was ready for the far-flung development of physical education revival of ancient Greek ideals throughout Europe. There were many people which included the religious leaderMartin Luther, the philosopher nates Locke, physical educators Vittorino da Feltra, John Comenius, and Richard Mulcaster carried on that high fitness levels impr oved intellectual learning. But in the 1600s people believed that if it did not have any specific purpose than just a waste of time. PHYSICAL EDUCATION AS FROM THE 1700SThere was a big change in physical education during the 1700s which can be mostly accredited to three people Jean Jacques Rousseau, Johan Simon, and Guts Muths. Rousseau was the first person to promote education for the people and he also concluded play as being educational and show the importance of physical education to the development of a strong body. In the mid 1700s, Johan Simon became the first physical education teacher and stressed on the fact that physical education should be taught along with construe and writing. Simon believed physical education should include a lot of physical effort.Guts Muths developed a series of gymnastic apparatuses and believed that very important social skills are developed through physical education. These people of that time and the things they did began to pave the road to w here we are today. In 19th-century, the first indoor gymnasium was built in Germany and some countries such as Europe, Sweden and Germany developed systems of gymnastics that were adopted internationally. A gymnasium was also build in Finland where exercise was for the first time seen as a way to achieve physical treatment. In liaison to exercise, students started to study anatomy and physiology.Denmark was among the first countries to require physical education in schools. By the 1820s, some American schools offered gymnasium and physical education. The physical education included the development and care of the body, and training in hygiene, callisthenic exercises, gymnastics, and the performance and focal point of athletic games. CONCLUSION Physical education has a cultural inheritance and background which started at the dawn of civilization. Primitive human being had to be very active and physically to survive. Farming began in its primitive form and made people have more phys ical activity from only working in the fields.People fitness levels changed here and the also began seeing a more sedentary lifestyle. Ancient Greek culture depended upon preparing its young men for war. Training for difference was not an option, but a prerequisite. Ancient physical education programs concentrated exclusively on activities that trained soldiers. The significance of physical education no longer concentrates solely on training soldiers for battle and ancient athletes for victories but for the wholesome development of a person. It began in ancient Greece and made its way around the world. REFERENCES S. E. Smith. (). What was the Neolithic Period?. Available http//www. isegeek. com/what-was-the-neolithic-period. htm. pull through accessed 30th Oct 2012. Charles A. Bucher. (1983). Historical foundations of physical education and sport. In Nancy K. Roberson Foundations of physical education and sport. US The C. V. Mosby Company. P133-155. http//www. cals. ncsu. edu/agex ed/aee501/rousseau. html http//prezi. com/ieokiwmde3ni/history-of-physical-education/ Howel et al. 1994. History Of Sport And Physical Education. In Foundations of Physical Education,pp. 17-117 A. Bruce Frederick. (). Gymnastics. Available http//www. britannica. com/EBchecked/topic/250277/gymnasticsref700589. Last accessed 01st nov 2012.History of Physical EducationBrief History of Physical Education A brief history of physical education in the United States would kick off in the nineteenth century. There was growing popularity of formal physical education programs all across Europe where calisthenics and gymnastics were all the rage. American schools looked to follow the European model by incorporating physical education into the curriculum for primary and secondary schools. And a brief history of physical education would not be complete with a consideration of institutes of higher education that gradually built up extremely successful sports programs.How it began The brief history of physical education would start in just about 1820 when schools focused on gymnastics, hygiene training and care and development of the human body. By the year 1950, over 400 institutes had introduced majors in physical education. The Young Mens Christian Association launched its very first chapter in 1851 and focused on physical activities. Colleges were encouraged to focus on intramural sports particularly track, field and football.But physical education became a formal requirement following the civil war when many states opted to pass laws that required schools to incorporate a substantial physical education component into their curriculums. But it was not till 1970 that an amendment was made to the Federal Education Act that allowed women from high school and college to compete in athletic competitions. Sex-based discrimination was completely outlawed from government funded programs at this point. THE HISTORY OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND ADAPTED PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN GREECEIn Gre ece the latest years special education has followed the same progression as in any other country in Europe but in a very slow pace. Specifically, Special Education services were available to Greek children since the beginning of the 20th century, adapted Physical Education was introduced the last two decades. After the first half of the century various associations developed intense activity with the aim to protect specific groups of people with special needs such as, the blind, the deaf and motionaly disabled.The initiative had clearly charitable characteristics with pity as the main feeling. The state welfare was non-existent every kind of care and prevention was accorded to the authorization of the charitable organization that with full power decided during the course of the years about the life and the future of thousands of people with special needs. The offers of the individuals had the form of institutional care (enclosed protection) with the offer of basic knowledge.The inte rest of private initiative led to the introduction of various institutional units and schools firstly in the area of Attica and then in other cities of Greece. Some of the first institutions, which were created, was the house of the blind in 1906, the house of the deaf and dump in 1923, and the Hellenic organization for the protection and rehabilitation of disabled children. In 1937 much late there were more branches created such as the national institution for the protection of the deaf and dump in 1937, the lighthouse of the blind in 1946, the school of the blind in North Greece in 1948 etc.These institutions housed a great number of children but the role of the individuals was not only always a charitable one. However, the private sector helped in its way the state preparation so as to take up later the responsibility and interfere institutionally. The first state interferences began in 50s and concerned mainly legislation arrangements for the blind and after for the motionaly d isabled. The state however was interested in the group of the mentally retarded children and later in the motionaly disabled, which the private agents had completely ignored.The first school, which was founded by the state for the mentally retarded children, was the original special school of Athens in 1937. Many people considerthe state interference in the space of special education during the 30s non-occasional. The considerable evolutions of pedagogical and psychology sciences, the establishment of obligatory attendance for all the children and the great number of mentally retarded children comparatively with other groups of inferior individuals was a reality which the Greek state could not ignore.From the mid of 50s the 70s the developments in special education came again from the wide activity of the private sector while the state followed with mainly legislation inferences and the well known sympathy towards the people with special needs. So, during this period educational u nits were founded and deaf and dumb schools in various areas of Greece and units for motionaly-disabled people. Another offer of the private sector was the foundation of childrens neuropsychiatry clinics and schools for the group of marginal adults and mentally retarded children.The exemplification of the Greek state and the educational policy of the western countries begins in the mid of the 70s approximately. Specifically towards the end of the 70s measures were promoted for the professional rehabilitation of the disabled by giving motives to employers for the employment of these people. Since 1980 and then special classes for the children with, learning difficulties and slight mental retardment began to be estamplished.The Greek state in the 80s seems to desire to participate actively with the other social factors in an attempt of reorganization of the philosophy and pre-existent structure concerning the people with special needs, which imposed their life and social back round. Precisely, emphasis was given in the whole development and the development of the potential of the people with special needs, their introduction in the productive procedure and their mutual acceptance in the social group.Today, thousands of individuals with disabilities are introduced to sports in various settings such as schools or in sports clubs in both segregated and integrated settings by a variety of national and international organizations. The momentum for such change is contributed to several reasons One of the most important reason is the introduction and approval of a new law, which mandates not only free public education for all children, but most important integration of children with disabilities in schools settings.This law is consideredas a springboard for the recognition for all childrens rights to participate in physical education activities. A second reason, is beginning of 90s the implementation of the program Sports for All, which is organized by the General S ecretariat of Sports and implemented with the support of different municipalities within Greece. A third reason, is the mandatory exposure of all students of physical education in adapted physical activity course work during their core university studies.In this way they have the opportunity not only to be introduced, but also to become specialized later on this subject. This has considerably affected their attitude to teach integrated sports. A fourth reason is the organization of the Paralympic Games of 2004, which is considered one of the largest events in the world. Due to the magnitude of this event, Greece started to evaluate the current status of the movement for sports for the disabled people, as well as, begin to take important actions towards the best organization of the games.