Sunday, December 16, 2018

'What is Crime?\r'

'The Oxford English lexicon designates villainy as â€Å"an practice punishable by law, as being forbidden by edict or injurious to the semipublic welf argon, an evil act; an offence, a violate, -an act can totally be considered a shame when identified as much(prenominal) by law. An act was outlined a hatred in the old testament with the creation of the go Commandments. This was when it was liter ally set into stone that numerous acts became a villainy against God, the first rules of the world.Crimes atomic number 18 immediately destine as nuisances with the help of the legal system and legitimate pieces of legislature and can non al delegacys necessarily be traced anchor to the Ten Commandments. Crime promptly has abundant expositions, the some obvious being offence as roughshod law irreverence. The Hg World giganticly Legal Directories website delineates woeful law as encompassing, ‘the rules and statutes compose by favorable intercourse and s tate legislators dealing with any cruel drill that causes harm to the general public, with penalties.’ and then to violate flagitious law, the single(a) would be engaging in deportment that is prohibited by the twist law. However it has belatedly run low extremely difficult to determine what is now grokd as a crime.Crime has no prevalent or objective existence but is sexual congress to the subjective contingencies of social and historical circumstance, this is crime as historical intervention. For example, ca utilise death of another individual, whether by neglect or with full intention is a crime, however it is almost justifiable and on umteen occasions heroic when practised in warfare. This is reiterated with the juvenile poaching ban, poaching only became wretchedised through the point of intersection of new mob and power interests in the eighteenth Century. James Treadwell argues this point as a criminologist and indicates that busy proposition acts that were once socially acceptable are now becoming criminalised, ‘crime is not static or fixed, it constantly changes.Things that once were not criminalised belong so, much(prenominal) as paedophiles ‘grooming’ dupes on the internet. . .similarly, activities, which were illegal, whitethorn become legal, such(prenominal) as consenting homosexual demeanour between men’. These arguments make it hard to define what crime is as the ‘rules’ of crime are ever-changing. The BBC produce an online article that illustrates the extent to which crime is uneasily defined, ‘a hundred years ago you could buy opium and cocain over the counter at Harrods. Acts which are utterly legal here whitethorn be serious crimes in other countries and vice versa.’ To help us downstairsstand what makes a crime a crime, Cesare Lombroso, an Italian criminologist introduced to the idea of positivism, the social reaction to classicism.Classicism is the theory t hat the punishment for a crime should reflect the trimity of verbalise crime. This design was developed during the transition from feudalism to capitalist economy and is a strong imaginer that each individual chooses whether to commit a crime or not as every soul is raised in edict that outlines the difference between right and ill-timed. The literary criticism for this concept is argued that at what age do you become criminally responsible, for example the horrific act of the ii young boys that committed a severe crime when kidnapping and torturing Jamie Bulger.The boys were eleven at the duration, thence as children they unfortunately served half the time period of time that an adult would drive if they had committed this crime repayable to the legal system believing they were not to the full responsible as they had been raised in small homes. The contrasting theory to this is that of Positivism, the scientific approach to crime. This concept developed by Lombroso a ttempts to look at the inheritable or biological explanation for a criminal gene. This concept is harshly criticised as more members of the public deem this as treating criminality as an illness.Lombroso publish a book in which he makes sever references to the concept of positivism and argues that multitude are untimely to fear that, ‘positivism encourages communistic ideas and even worsened criminal behavior’. This became the birth of criminology. Treadwell dissertatees Lombroso’s piddle and informs us that his work is still being canvass to the modern day, ‘Lombroso’s work could be position under the heading of biological criminology, investigations of the causes of criminality using more sophisticated research methods. . .have continued to be developed in the twentieth century’.Tim Newburn wrote that Edwin Sutherland defined criminology as, ‘the study of the making of laws, the breaking of laws, and of society’s react ion to the breaking of laws’. Crime can to a fault be defined as social harm. For example, we postulate the question are tobacco companies selling wounding products that are in turn, effectively killing us, murderers. Is this a crime? This is known as the crime of violation to human rights, thereof a further definition could be health and safety issues in the workplace. This is reiterated when we debate ‘white collar crime’.We struggle to define crime as crime is an act that breaches the criminal law, however many of the people we put in charge of running our countries or deciding these criminal laws are in accompaniment themselves committing crimes. If this is so, why are these crimes socially acceptable? The offences of these crimes tend to be ‘ infrared’ or painfully difficult to trace. They are often committed by persons of high social military position and respectability therefore they find it easier to evade persecution. ‘ uncont aminating collar crime’ is often disjointed overthrow into, embezzlement, breaches of health and safety and environmental crimes. Bhopal was identified as one of the worst industrial ‘accidents’ this world had witnessed.The 1984 fortuity that killed 8000 people instantly and injuring a further 2 hundred’000 was believed an accident due to the lethal gases leaking from Union Carbide’s pesticide factory. For 20 years after this tragedy, an estimated 30 people a month were believed to have died from lung disease, brain damage, cancer, all linking to the gas leak of 1984. This accident was contested in court yet the people involved have yet to receive a settlement stipend and not one person was held responsible for this hoi polloi homicide. Newburn records Bhopal as a crime and a ‘major(ip) industrial disaster’ in his book as he files it under the heading, ‘environmental crime’. This helps us to define crime as a class i ssue due to crimes of the powerful having greater potential difference to cause more harm than crimes of the less powerful.Newburn what is more analyses hidden crimes within criminology, ‘Criminology has been regularly, roundly and rightly criticised for this concentration: a concern with the crimes of the powerless quite than the powerful, with the ‘crimes of the streets’ rather than the ‘crimes of the suites’. The Marxist concept of this is crime as an ideologic censure, that acts would only be defined a crime when in the interest of the ruling classes at that period of time. These crimes remain hidden for various reasons. The diffusion of right means that is extremely difficult to legally and morally identify a persecutor, secondly a luck of the crimes the general public try on about are in the media and corporate crime simply does not sell. Media coverage creates moral panic and fear of ‘crime’.To define crime we often look t o the media to line their reaction on a specific incident. However, although crime consumes an enormous amount of media space as some(prenominal) entertainment and news, concepts of crime are mediated by profit margins. Due to only crimes that are considered to earn the attention of the general public being reported, this do what we as an individual define as a crime. Treadwell argues that, ‘most media institutions seek to tear as wide an audience as possible to maximise their profits. . .to attract and retain audiences media products have to entertain, be dramatic or exciting, and sometimes cause outright shock’. Therefore as crime is seemingly a sad aspect of our life this would seem the most fascinate topic to cover.Treadwell labels this concept, ‘newsworthiness’. He goes on to discuss that, ‘Today, crime stories are increasingly selected and ‘produced as media events on the basis of their visual . . . as well as their lexical-verba l . . . potential’. There is a vivid and exceedingly complex relationship between the media and the criminal referee system. A further more obvious way in which we can define crime is by the Home Office statistics. The Home Office websites defines themselves as, ‘the have government department for immigration and passports, drugs policy, crime, counter-terrorism and jurisprudence’. The two main methods of collecting the criminal data that tout in the Home Office are victim surveys and statistics recorded by the police force. However, only particular offences, ‘serious crimes’ are reported by the police to the Home Office statistics, not the summary offences that are heard in the Courts.Police are overly under the instruction to record every allegation they hear and many police officers do not believe a number of allegations or there may be a lack of evidence and many times the victims decide to not press charges therefore they see it unfit to record it as a ‘crime’. Furthermore a crime is only a crime when ‘officially’ recorded and since most victims do not report crimes there is a ‘dark figure’ of crime that remains unknown. The reasons to why victims fail to report their crimes can be broken down into three categories: embarrassment, unworthiness and failure to examine. If a victim has been sexually abused or pillaged they may fail to report this as they may be overwhelmed with a feeling of embarrassment or in certain religious cultures it may bewilder shame upon a family.Some victims also feel the temper of their crime isn’t worthy of police time, such as rowdy neighbours or petty theft. Finally, if a person is a victim of identity theft, baseball club times out of ten they fail to realise and therefore have nothing to report. In finishing, a crime only seemingly exists when society perceive it as a crime or a great reaction to an act therefore labels it as one. An a ct is often acceptable until labelled as morally wrong by a social group.At some time or another, some society somewhere has defined almost all forms of behaviour that we now call ‘criminal’ as coveted for the functioning of that society, (Williams (1964:46)), this would be crime as a violation of moral codes. In the BBC article written by Mark Easton, he reiterates that, ‘one cultures crime is another cultures social norm’. This concept is crime as a social construct. In 1963 Becker created the ‘Labelling surmise’ which illustrated that crime is dependent upon social reaction and that the social consensus is regularly challenged.At the beginning of my essay I provided the Oxford vocabulary definition for crime and after studying the wide range of criminal concepts I have reached the conclusion that there is no right or wrong answer to define crime. The dictionary defines crime as punishable by law yet also defines crime as a sin. A pers on will be prosecuted for an act that does not appease by the legislation set up by the criminal justice system, however an individual may go to church to repent a sin that is only deemed as a crime within their religious culture.Crime will forever be surrounded by questions of social order, it will always be contested and people will always oddity how it can be perceived due to the fact that society’s vision of crime changes with the maturement and development of society. Crime is elusive, contested and an ever moving concept that is tied to our social processes.\r\n'

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